References - Pharmacology for Nurses | OpenStax (2024)

Chapter 1 Introduction to Pharmacology

Atkinson, J. (2022). Advances in pharmacy practice: A look towards the future. Pharmacy, 10(5), 125–137. https://doi.org/10.3390/pharmacy10050125

Clark, L. T., Watkins, L., Piña, I. L., Elmer, M., Akinboboye, O., Gorham, M., Jamerson, B., McCullough, C., Pierre, C., Polis, A. B., Puckrein, G., & Regnante, J. M. (2019). Increasing diversity in clinical trials: Overcoming critical barriers. Current Problems in Cardiology, 44(5), 148–172. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.cpcardiol.2018.11.002

Drug & Alcohol Testing Association of Canada. (2017). Understanding drug schedules. https://datac.ca/understanding-drug-schedules/?locale=en

Haas, D. M., Marsh, D. J., Dang, D. T., Parker, C. B., Wing, D. A., Simhan, H. N., Grobman, W. A., Mercer, B. M., Silver, R. M., Hoffman, M. K., Parry, S., Iams, J. D., Caritis, S. N., Wapner, R. J., Esplin, M. S., Elovitz, M. A., Peaceman, A. M., Chung, J., Saade, G. R., & Reddy, U. M. (2018). Prescription and other medication use in pregnancy. Obstetrics and Gynecology, 131(5), 789–798. https://doi.org/10.1097/AOG.0000000000002579

Hattori, Y., & Seifert, R. (2023). Reflections on the 150th anniversary of Naunyn-Schmeideberg’s Archives of Pharmacology: Past, challenges, and future. Naunyn-Schmiedebergs Archives of Pharmacology, 396(1), 1–3. https://doi.org/10.1007/s00210-022-02321-4

Health Canada. (n.d.). How drugs are reviewed in Canada. https://www.canada.ca/en/health-canada/services/drugs-health-products/drug-products/fact-sheets/drugs-reviewed-canada.html

Hutchings, M. I., Truman, A. W., & Wilkinson, B. (2019). Antibiotics: Past, present, and future. Current Opinion in Microbiology, 51, 72–80. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.mib.2019.10.008

Karamanou, M., Protogeru, A., Tsoucalas, G., Androutsos, G., & Poulakou-Rebelakou, E. (2016). Milestones in the history of diabetes mellitus: The main contributors. World Journal of Diabetes, 7(1), 1–7. https://doi.org/10.4239/wjd.v7.i1.1

Kirzinger, A., Neuman, R., Cubanski, J., & Brodie, M. (2019). Data note: Prescription drugs and older adults. Kaiser Family Foundation. https://www.kff.org/health-reform/issue-brief/data-note-prescription-drugs-and-older-adults/

Kumar, V. (2022). Business of opium. In Handbook on opium (pp. 71–87). Academic Press. https://doi.org/10.1016/B978-0-323-90903-7.00017-x

Lee, S. H., & Yoon, K. H. (2021). A century of progress in diabetes care with insulin: A history of innovations and foundation for the future. Diabetes Metabolic Journal. 45(5), 629-640. doi: 10.4093/dmj.2021.0163. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8497924

Naddaf, M. (2022). Researchers welcome $3.5 million haemophilia gene-therapy—but questions remain. Nature, 612(7940), 388–389. https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/36474054/

National Association of Pharmacy Regulatory Authorities (NAPRA). (2023). What are the national drug schedules (NDS)? https://www.napra.ca/national-drug-schedules/national-drug-schedules-program/what-are-the-national-drug-schedules-nds/

National Institutes of Health. (2022). The human genome project. https://www.genome.gov/about-genomics/educational-resources/fact-sheets/human-genome-project

Pazan, F., & Wehling, M. (2021). Polypharmacy in older adults: A narrative review of definitions, epidemiology, and consequences. European Geriatric Medicine, 12(3), 443–452. https:doi.org/10.1007/s41999-021-00479-3

Pfizer. (2021). Let’s see how biosimilars are developed. https://www.pfizerbiosimilars.com/biosimilars-development

Statista. (2023). Health insurance in the United States—Statistics and facts. https://www.statista.com/topics/7807/health-insurance-in-the-us/

Stefano, G. B., Pilonis, N., Ptacek, R., & Kream, R. M. (2017). Reciprocal evolution of opiate science from medical and cultural perspectives. Medical Science Monitor: International Medical Journal of Experimental and Clinical Research, 23, 2890–2896. https://doi.org/10.12659/msm.905167

Tolbert, J., Drake, P., & Damico, A. (2022). Key facts about the uninsured population. Kaiser Family Foundation. https://www.kff.org/uninsured/issue-brief/key-facts-about-the-uninsured-population

U.S. Food and Drug Administration. (2016). Drug research and children. https://www.fda.gov/drugs/information-consumers-and-patients-drugs/drug-research-and-children

U.S. Food and Drug Administration. (2018a). Gender studies in product development: Historical overview. https://www.fda.gov/science-research/womens-health-research/gender-studies-product-development-historical-overview

U.S. Food and Drug Administration. (2018b). Understanding over-the-counter medicines. https://www.fda.gov/drugs/buying-using-medicine-safely/understanding-over-counter-medicines

U.S. Food and Drug Administration. (2021a). Generic drug facts. https://www.fda.gov/drugs/generic-drugs/generic-drug-facts

U.S. Food and Drug Administration. (2021b). Pregnancy and lactation labeling (drugs) final rule. https://www.fda.gov/drugs/labeling-information-drug-products/pregnancy-and-lactation-labeling-drugs-final-rule

U.S. Food and Drug Administration. (2022a). Clinical trial diversity. https://www.fda.gov/consumers/minority-health-and-health-equity/clinical-trial-diversity

U.S. Food and Drug Administration. (2022b). Developing new drugs. https://www.fda.gov/drugs/development-approval-process-drugs#Developing

U.S. Food and Drug Administration. (2022c). Overview for healthcare professionals. https://www.fda.gov/drugs/biosimilars/overview-health-care-professionals

U.S. Pharmacopeia. (n.d.). USP-NF. https://www.usp.org/sites/default/files/usp/document/products-services/usp-nf-summary-final.pdf

Vespa, J., Medina, L., & Armstrong, D. M. (2020). Demographic turning points for the United States: Population projections for 2020 to 2060. Current Population Reports, No. p25-1144. U. S. Census Bureau. https://www.census.gov/content/dam/Census/library/publications/2020/demo/p25-1144.pdf

Wilder, M. E., Kulie, P., Jensen, C., Levett, P., Blanchard, J., Dominguez, L. W., Portela, M., Srivastava, A., Li, Y., & McCarthy, M. L. (2021). The impact of social determinants of health on medication adherence: A systematic review and meta-analysis. Journal of General Internal Medicine, 36(5), 1359–1370. https://doi.org/10.1007/s11606-020-06447-0

Wouters, O. J., McKee, M., & Luyten, J. (2020). Estimated research and development investment needed to bring a new medicine to market, 2009-2018. Journal of the American Medical Association, 323(9), 844–853. https://doi.org/10.1001/jama.2020.1166

Whyte, J. (2022). Racial and ethnic representation of participants in US clinical trials of new drugs and biologics. Journal of the American Medical Association, 327(10), 985. https://doi:10.1001/jama.2022.0875

Chapter 2 Drug Administration

Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality (AHRQ). (2019). Medication reconciliation. https://psnet.ahrq.gov/primer/medication-reconciliation

American Nurses Association. (2021). Nursing: Scope and standards of practice (4th ed.). Author.

Bakerjian, D. (2023). Personal health literacy. Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality. https://psnet.ahrq.gov/primer/personal-health-literacy

Callahan, B. (Ed.). (2023). Nursing: A concept-based approach to learning (4th ed., Vol. 2). Pearson.

Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. (2023). Vaccine administration. https://www.cdc.gov/vaccines/hcp/acip-recs/general-recs/administration.html

Dickison, P., Haerling, K. A., & Lasater, K. (2019). Integrating the National Council of State Boards of Nursing clinical judgment model into nursing educational frameworks. Journal of Nursing Education, 58(2), 72–78. https://doi.org/10.3928/01484834-20190122-03

Grogan, S., & Preuss, C. V. (2023). Pharmaco*kinetics. StatPearls. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/books/NBK557744/

Herman, T. F., & Santos, C. (2023). First pass effect. StatPearls. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/books/NBK551679/

National Council of State Boards of Nursing. (Summer, 2018). Item development for the Next Generation NCLEX® (NGN). Next Generation NCLEX News. https://www.ncsbn.org/public-files/NGN_Summer18_Eng_04_FINAL.pdf

National Council of State Boards of Nursing. (2023). Clinical judgment measurement model: A framework to measure clinical judgment & decision making. Next Generation NCLEX. https://www.nclex.com/clinical-judgment-measurement-model.page

National Institutes of Health. (2022). How to evaluate health information on the internet: Questions and answers. https://ods.od.nih.gov/HealthInformation/How_To_Evaluate_Health_Information_on_the_Internet_Questions_and_Answers.aspx

Nibbelink, C. W., & Brewer, B. B. (2018). Decision-making in nursing practice: An integrative literature review. Journal of Clinical Nursing, 27(5–6), 917–928. https://doi.org/10.1111/jocn.14151

Panagioti, M., Khan, K., Keers, R. N., Abuzour, A., Phipps, D., Kontopantelis, E., Bower, P., Campbell, S, Haneef, R., Avery, A. J., & Ashcroft, D. M. (2019). Prevalence, severity, and nature of preventable patient harm across medical care settings: Systematic review and meta-analysis. British Medical Journal, 366, 4185. https://doi.org/10.1136/bmj.l4185

Price, G., & Patel, D. A. (2022). Drug bioavailability. StatPearls. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/books/NBK557852/

Sherrill, K. J. (2020). Clinical judgment and Next Generation NCLEX®—A positive direction for nursing education. Teaching and Learning in Nursing, 15, 82–85. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.teln.2019.08.009

Silvestri, L. A., Silvestri, A. E., & Ignatavicius, D. D. (2023). Strategies for student success on the next generation NCLEX (NGN) test items. Elsevier.

Strudwick, G., Reisdorfer, E., Warnock, C., Kalia, K., Sulkers, H., Clark, C., & Booth, R. (2018). Factors associated with barcode medication administration technology that contribute to patient safety: An integrative review. Journal of Nursing Care Quality, 33(1), 70–85. https:// DOI:10.1097/NCQ.0000000000000270

Tariq, R. A., Vashisht, R., Sinha, A., & Scherbak, Y. (2023). Medication dispensing errors and prevention. StatPearls. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/books/NBK519065/

Taylor, C., Lynn, P., & Bartlett, J. L. (2023). Fundamentals of nursing: The art and science of person-centered care (10th ed.). Wolters Kluwer.

U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA). (2019). Working to reduce medication errors. https://www.fda.gov/drugs/information-consumers-and-patients-drugs/working-reduce-medication-errors

U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA). (2023a). Patient labeling resources. https://www.fda.gov/drugs/fdas-labeling-resources-human-prescription-drugs/patient-labeling-resources

U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA). (2023b). Table of pharmacogenomic biomarkers in drug labeling. https://www.fda.gov/drugs/science-and-research-drugs/table-pharmacogenomic-biomarkers-drug-labeling

Chapter 3 Ethics, Legal Considerations, and Safety

Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality. (2019a). Culture of safety. https://psnet.ahrq.gov/primer/culture-safety

Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality. (2019b). Medication errors and adverse drug events. https://psnet.ahrq.gov/primer/medication-errors-and-adverse-drug-events

Amato, M. G., Salazar, A., Hickman, T. T., Quist, A. J. L., Volk, L., Wright, A., McEvoy, D., Galanter, W. L., Koppel, R., Loudin, B., Adelman, J., McGreevey, J. D., Smith, D., Bates, D. W., & Schiff, G. D. (2017). Computerized prescriber order entry-related patient safety reports: Analysis of 2522 medication errors. Journal of American Medical Informatics Association, 24(2), 316–322. https://doi.org/10.1093/jamia/ocw125

American Association of Colleges of Nursing. (n.d.). Quality & safety education for nurses (QSEN). https://www.aacnnursing.org/Faculty/Teaching-Resources/QSEN

American Nurses Association. (2015). Code of ethics for nurses with interpretive statements. https://www.nursingworld.org/practice-policy/nursing-excellence/ethics/code-of-ethics-for-nurses/

American Nurses Association. (2022). Nursing informatics: Scope and standards of practice (3rd ed.). Author.

Apathy, N. C., Holmgren, A. J., & Adler-Milstein, J. (2021). A decade post-HITECH: Critical access hospitals have electronic health records but struggle to keep up with other advanced functions. Journal of the American Medical Informatics Association, 28(9), 1947–1954. https://doi.org/10.1093/jamia/ocab102

Barnsteiner, J. H., & American Association of Colleges of Nursing. (n.d.). QSEN learning module: Safety. https://www.aacnnursing.org/Faculty/Teaching-Resources/QSEN/QSEN-Learning-Module-Series

Beauchamp, T. L., & Childress, J. F. (2013). Principles of biomedical ethics (7th ed.). Oxford University Press.

Brenan, M. (2023). Nurses retain top ethics rating in U.S., but below 2020 high. Gallup. https://news.gallup.com/poll/467804/nurses-retain-top-ethics-rating-below-2020-high.aspx

Brooks, K., Polverento, M., Houdeshell-Putt, L., Sarzynski, E., & Ford, S. (2022). Observing provider utilization of electronic health records to improve clinical quality metrics. Perspectives in Health Information Management, 19(1), 1–8.

Callahan, B. (Ed.). (2023). Nursing: A concept-based approach to learning (4th ed., Vol. 2). Pearson.

Campanella, P., Lovato, E., Marone, C., Fallacara, L., Mancuso, A., Ricciardi, W., & Specchia, M. L. (2016). The impact of electronic health records on healthcare quality: A systematic review and meta-analysis. European Journal of Public Health, 26(1), 60–64. https://doi.org/10.1093/eurpub/ckv122

Coleman, J. J., & Pontefract, S. K. (2016). Adverse drug reactions. Clinical Medicine, 16(5), 481–485. https://doi.org/10.7861/clinmedicine.16-5-481

da Silva, B. A., & Krishnamurthy, M. (2016). The alarming reality of medication error: A patient case and review of Pennsylvania and national data.Journal of Community Hospital Internal Medicine Perspectives,6(4), 31758. https://doi.org/10.3402/jchimp.v6.31758

Fallowfield, L. J., Jenkins, V. A., & Beveridge, H. A. (2002). Truth may hurt but deceit hurts more: Communication in palliative care. Palliative Medicine, 16(4), 297–303. https://doi.org/10.1191/0269216302pm575oa

HealthCare.gov. (n.d.). Affordable Care Act (ACA). https://www.healthcare.gov/glossary/affordable-care-act/

HealthIT.gov. (2019). Electronic health records: The basics. https://www.healthit.gov/faq/what-information-does-electronic-health-record-ehr-contain

Institute for Safe Medication Practices. (2020). The differences between human error, at-risk behavior, and reckless behavior are key to a just culture. https://www.ismp.org/resources/differences-between-human-error-risk-behavior-and-reckless-behavior-are-key-just-culture

Institute for Safe Medication Practices. (2023). Implement strategies to prevent persistent medication errors and hazards. https://www.ismp.org/resources/implement-strategies-prevent-persistent-medication-errors-and-hazards

Institute of Medicine, Kohn, L. T., Corrigan, J. M., & Donaldson, M. S. (Eds.). (1999). To err is human: Building a safer health system. Committee on Quality of Health Care in America, Institute of Medicine, National Academy Press.

The Joint Commission. (2023). Hospital: 2023 national patient safety goals. https://www.jointcommission.org/standards/national-patient-safety-goals/hospital-national-patient-safety-goals/

The Joint Commission. (n.d.-a). Do not use list fact sheet. https://www.jointcommission.org/resources/news-and-multimedia/fact-sheets/facts-about-do-not-use-list

The Joint Commission. (n.d.-b). Sentinel event. https://www.jointcommission.org/resources/sentinel-event/

Kaiser Family Foundation. (2023, March 30). KFF health tracking poll: The public’s views on the ACA. https://www.kff.org/interactive/kff-health-tracking-poll-the-publics-views-on-the-aca/

Kürzinger, L., Douarin, L., Uzun, I., El-Haddad, C., Hurst, W., Juhaeri, J., & Tcherny-Lessenot, S. (2020). Structured benefit–risk evaluation for medicinal products: Review of quantitative benefit–risk assessment findings in the literature. Therapeutic Advances in Drug Safety, 11. https://doi.org/10.1177/2042098620976951

Lian, J., McGhee, S. M., So, C., Chau, J., Wong, C. K. H., Wong, W. C. W., & Lam, C. L. K. (2018). Long-term cost-effectiveness of a patient-empowerment programme for type 2 diabetes mellitus in primary care. Diabetes, Obesity & Metabolism, 21(1), 73–83. https://doi.org/10.1111/dom.13485

Mandeville, B., Cooper, E., Haskell, J., Viner-Brown, S., & Gardner, R. (2020). Use of health information technology by Rhode Island physicians and advanced practice providers, 2019. Rhode Island Medical Journal, 103(1), 21–24.

MacDowell, P., Cabri, A., & Davis, M. (2021). Medication errors. Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality. https://psnet.ahrq.gov/primer/medication-administration-errors

Murphy, R. M., Klopotowska, J. E., de Keizer, N. F., Jager, K. J., Leopold, J. H., Dongelmans, D. A., Abu-Hanna, A., & Schut, M. C. (2023). Adverse drug event detection using natural language processing: A scoping review of supervised learning methods.PloS One,18(1), e0279842. https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0279842

National Coordinating Council for Medication Error Reporting and Prevention. (2023). About medication errors. http://www.nccmerp.org/about-medication-errors

National Institutes of Health. (2022). How to evaluate health information on the internet: Questions and answers. https://ods.od.nih.gov/HealthInformation/How_To_Evaluate_Health_Information_on_
the_Internet_Questions_and_Answers.aspx

Petruzzello, M. (2023, April 12).Pure Food and Drug Act.Encyclopedia Britannica. https://www.britannica.com/topic/Pure-Food-and-Drug-Act

Powers, E. M., Shiffman, R. N., Melnick, E. R., Hickner, A., & Sharifi, M. (2018). Efficacy and unintended consequences of hard-stop alerts in electronic health record systems: A systematic review.Journal of the American Medical Informatics Association,25(11), 1556–1566. https://doi.org/10.1093/jamia/ocy112

Reason, J. (2000). Human error: Models and management. British Medical Journal, 320(7237), 768–770. https://doi:10.1126/bmj.320.7237.768

Rodziewicz, T. L., Houseman, B., & Hipskind, J. E. (2023). Medical error reduction and prevention. StatPearls. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/books/NBK499956/

Tariq, R. A., Vashisht, R., Sinha, A., & Scherbak, Y. (2023). Medication dispensing errors and prevention. StatPearls. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/books/NBK519065/

Tian, S., Yang, W., Le Grange, J. M., Wang, P., Huang, W., & Ye, Z. (2019). Smart healthcare: Making medical care more intelligent. Global Health Journal, 3(3), 62–68. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.glohj.2019.07.001

Tolbert, J., Drake, P., & Damico, A. (2022, December 19). Key facts about the uninsured population. Kaiser Family Foundation. https://www.kff.org/uninsured/issue-brief/key-facts-about-the-uninsured-population/

Torab-Miandoab, A., Samad-Soltani, T., Jodati, A., & Rezaei-Hachesu, P. (2023). Interoperability of heterogeneous health information systems: A systematic literature review. BMC Medical Informatics and Decision Making, 23(1), 18. https://doi.org/10.1186/s12911-023-02115-5

U.S. Department of Health and Human Services. (2021). The HIPAA privacy rule. https://www.hhs.gov/hipaa/for-professionals/privacy/index.html

Vaghasiya, M. R., Poon, S. K., Gunja, N., & Penm, J. (2023). The impact of an electronic medication management system on medication deviation on admission and discharge from hospital. International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health, 20, 1879. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph20031879

Varkey, B. (2021). Principles of clinical ethics and their application to practice. Medical Principles and Practice, 30, 17–28. https://doi.org/10.1159/000509119

Walker, T. (2022). Value of choice. Journal of Medical Ethics. 48, 61–64. https://doi.org/10.1136/medethics-2020-106067

World Health Organization. (n.d.). Briefing note: Safety of medicines—adverse drug reactions. https://www.who.int/docs/default-source/medicines/safety-of-medicines--adverse-drug-reactions-jun18.pdf

Chapter 4 Introduction to Homeostasis

Billman, G. E. (2020). Homeostasis: The underappreciated and far too often ignored central organizing principle of physiology. Frontiers in Physiology, 11, 200. https://doi.org/10.3389/fphys.2020.00200

Chakravarty, S., Hong, C. I., & Csikász-Nagy, A. (2023). Systematic analysis of negative and positive feedback loops for robustness and temperature compensation in circadian rhythms. NPJ Systems Biology and Applications, 9(1), 5. https://doi.org/10.1038/s41540-023-00268-7

Hannezo, E., & Heisenberg, C. P. (2019). Mechanochemical feedback loops in development and disease. Cell Press. 178(1), 12–25. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.cell.2019.05.052

Hoorm, E. J., Gritter, M., Cuevas, C. A., & Fenton, R. A. (2020). Regulation of the renal NaCl cotransporter and its role in potassium homeostasis. Physiological Reviews, 100(1), 321–356. https://journals.physiology.org/doi/epdf/10.1152/physrev.00044.2018

Khan, Y. S., & Farhana, A. (2023). Histology, cell. StatPearls. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/books/NBK554382/

Koeppen, B. M., & Stanton, B. A. (2023). Berne and Levy physiology (8th ed.). Elsevier. ISBN: 9780323847926

Libretti, S., & Puckett, Y. (2023). Physiology, homeostasis. National Library of Medicine. National Center for Biotechnology Information. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/books/NBK559138/

Maldonado, K. A., & Mohiuddin, S. S. (2022). Biochemistry, hypertonicity. National Library of Medicine. National Center for Biotechnology Information. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/books/NBK541095/

Molnar, C., & Gair, J. (n.d.) Concepts of biology (1st Canadian ed.–Gunness). Pressbooks. https://pressbooks.bccampus.ca/conceptsofbiologygunness/

Pirahanchi, Y., Jessu, R., & Aeddula, N. R. (2023, March 13). Physiology, sodium potassium pump. National Library of Medicine. National Center for Biotechnology Information. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/books/NBK537088/

Valls, P. O., & Esposito, A. (2022). Signaling dynamics, cell decisions, and homeostatic control in health and disease. Current Opinion in Cell Biology, 75 (article # 102066). https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0955067422000126

Chapter 5 Fluids and Electrolytes, Vitamins, Minerals, and Alternative Therapies

Ahmed, S., Shah, P., & Ahmed, O. (2023). Biochemistry, lipids. StatPearls. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/books/NBK525952/

American Red Cross. (n.d.). Blood components. https://www.redcrossblood.org/donate-blood/how-to-donate/types-of-blood-donations/blood-components.html

American Society for Parenteral and Enteral Nutrition. (n.d.). ASPEN parenteral nutrition care pathway. https://www.nutritioncare.org/SmartPN_Pathway.aspx

Brinkman, J. E., Dorius, B., & Sharma, S. (2023). Physiology, body fluids. StatPearls. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/books/NBK482447/

Cascella, M., & Vaqar, S. (2023). Hypermagnesemia. StatPearls. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/books/NBK549811/

Crosignani, A., Spina, S., Marrazzo, F., Cimbanassi, S., Malbrain, M. L. N. G., Van Regenemortel, N., Fumagalli, R., & Langer, T. (2022). Intravenous fluid therapy in patients with severe acute pancreatitis admitted to the intensive care unit: A narrative review. Annals of Intensive Care, 12(1), 98. https://doi.org/10.1186/s13613-022-01072-y

Dalga, D., Verissimo, T., & de Seigneux, S. (2023). Gluconeogenesis in the kidney: In health and in chronic kidney disease. Clinical Kidney Journal, 16(8), 1249–1257. https://doi.org/10.1093/ckj/sfad046

Drake, T. M., & Gupta, V. (2022). Calcium. StatPearls. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/books/NBK557683/

Ekinci, C., Karabork, M., Siriopol, D., Dincer, N., Covic, A., & Kanbay, M. (2018). Effects of volume overload and current techniques for the assessment of fluid status in patients with renal disease. Blood Purification, 46(1), 34–47. https://www.karger.com/Article/FullText/487702

Epstein, E. M., & Waseem, M. (2022). Crystalloid fluids. StatPearls. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/books/NBK537326/

FADIC. (n.d.). IV fluids: The most common types. https://fadic.net/iv-fluids-the-most-common-types/

Felicilda-Reynaldo, R. F. D., Choi, S. Y., Driscoll, S. D., & Albright, C. L. (2020). A national survey of complementary and alternative medicine use for treatment among Asian-Americans. Journal of Immigrant and Minority Health, 22(4), 762–770. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10903-019-00936-z

Fisher, R. M., & Gupta, V. (2022). Heavy metals. StatPearls. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/books/NBK557806/

Fishman, S. (2023). What is hypochloremia? Definition, symptoms, and treatment. Healthgrades. https://www.healthgrades.com/right-care/symptoms-and-conditions/hypochloremia

Furhad, S., & Bokhari, A. A. (2022). Herbal supplements. StatPearls. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/books/NBK536964/

Goyal, A., Anastasopoulou, C., Ngu, M., & Singh, S. (2022). Hypocalcemia. StatPearls. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/books/NBK430912/

Goyal, R., & Jialal, I. (2022). Hyperphosphatemia. StatPearls. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/books/NBK551586/

Gragossian, A., Bashir, K., Bhutta, B. S., & Friede, R. (2022). Hypomagnesemia. StatPearls. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/books/NBK500003/

Hamdan, M., & Puckett, Y. (2022). Total parenteral nutrition. StatPearls. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/books/NBK559036/

Han, C., Jiang, Y. H., Li, W., Liu, Y., & Qi, Z. Q. (2019). Study on the antihypertensive mechanism of Astragalus membranaceus and Salvia miltiorrhiza based on intestinal flora-host metabolism. Evidence-Based Complementary and Alternative Medicine, 2019, 5418796. https://doi.org/10.1155/2019/5418796

Harris, J. C., & Crookston, K. P. (2022). Blood product safety. StatPearls. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/books/NBK539826/

Jones, E., Nissen, L., McCarthy, A., Steadman, K., & Windsor, C. (2019). Exploring the use of complementary and alternative medicine in cancer patients. Integrative Cancer Therapies, 18. https://doi.org/10.1177/1534735419846986

Kisling, L. A., & Stiegmann, R. A. (2022). Alternative medicine. StatPearls. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/books/NBK538520/

Kumar, P. A., Paulraj, S., & Udekwu, A. (2020). Hemodynamic collapse following therapeutic plasma exchange in a patient receiving an angiotensin receptor blocker. Cureus, 12(2), e7028. https://doi.org/10.7759/cureus.7028

Lotterman, S., & Sharma, S. (2022). Blood transfusion. StatPearls. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/books/NBK499824/

Lykstad, J., & Sharma, S. (2023). Biochemistry, water-soluble vitamins. StatPearls. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/books/NBK538510/

Melendez-Rivera, J. G., & Anjum, F. (2022). Hypovolemia. StatPearls. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/books/NBK565845/

Moses, G. (2021). The safety of commonly used vitamins and minerals. Australian Prescriber, 44(4), 119–123. https://doi.org/10.18773/austprescr.2021.029

Mount Sinai. (n.d.). Saw palmetto. https://www.mountsinai.org/health-library/herb/saw-palmetto

National Health Service. (2023). Taking folic acid with other medicines and herbal supplements. https://www.nhs.uk/medicines/folic-acid/taking-folic-acid-with-other-medicines-and-herbal-supplements

National Institutes of Health. (n.d.-a). Dietary Supplement Health and Education Act of 1994. https://ods.od.nih.gov/About/DSHEA_Wording.aspx

National Institutes of Health. (n.d.-b). Mission. National Center for Complementary and Integrative Health (NCCIH). https://www.nih.gov/about-nih/what-we-do/nih-almanac/national-center-complementary-integrative-health-nccih

National Institutes of Health. (n.d.-c). Herbs at a glance. National Center for Complementary and Integrative Health (NCCIH). https://www.nccih.nih.gov/health/herbsataglance

Piskin, E., Cianciosi, D., Gulec, S., Tomas, M., & Capanoglu, E. (2022). Iron absorption: Factors, limitations, and improvement methods. ACS Omega, 7(24), 20441–20456. https://doi.org/10.1021/acsomega.2c01833

Rajkumar, V., Lee, V. R., & Gupta, V. (2023). Heavy metal toxicity. StatPearls. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/books/NBK560920/

Reddy, P., & Jialal, I. (2022). Biochemistry, fat-soluble vitamins. StatPearls. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/books/NBK534869/

Rudloff, E., & Hopper, K. (2021). Crystalloid and colloid compositions and their impact. Frontiers in Veterinary Science, 8, 639848. https://doi.org/10.3389/fvets.2021.639848

Sachais, B. S., & Senaldi, E. (2019). Chapter 36: Cryoprecipitate and fibrinogen concentrates. In Transfusion medicine and hemostasis (3rd ed.). Elsevier. https://doi.org/10.1016/B978-0-12-813726-0.00036-2.

Sadiq, N. M., Naganathan, S., & Badireddy, M. (2022). Hypercalcemia. StatPearls. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/books/NBK430714/

Sepulveda, E. A., & Pak, A. (2022). Lipid emulsion therapy. StatPearls. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/books/NBK549897/

Sharma, S., Hashmi, M. F., & Castro, D. (2022). Hypophosphatemia. StatPearls. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/books/NBK493172/

Shrimanker, I., & Bhattarai, S. (2023). Electrolytes. StatPearls. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/books/NBK541123/

Sur, M., & Mohiuddin, S. S. (2022). Potassium. StatPearls. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/books/NBK539791/

Tinawi, M. (2021). New trends in the utilization of intravenous fluids. Cureus, 13(4), e14619. https://doi.org/10.7759/cureus.14619

Veniamakis, E., Kaplanis, G., Voulgaris, P., & Nikolaidis, P. T. (2022). Effects of sodium intake on health and performance in endurance and ultra-endurance sports. International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health, 19(6), 3651. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph19063651

Chapter 6 Introduction to the Immune System and the Inflammatory Response

American Cancer Society. (2018). Understanding biologic and biosimilar drugs. https://www.fightcancer.org/policy-resources/understanding-biologic-and-biosimilar-drugs

Aziz, M., Iheanacho, F., & Hashmi, M. F. (2023). Physiology, antibody. StatPearls. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/books/NBK546670/

Bardhan, M., & Kaushik, R. (2023). Physiology, complement cascade. StatPearls. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/books/NBK551511/

Benjamin, O., Goyal, A., & Lappin, S. L. (2022). Disease-modifying antirheumatic drugs (DMARD). StatPearls. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/books/NBK507863/

Cavaillon, J. M. (2021). Once upon a time, inflammation. The Journal of Venomous Animals and Toxins Including Tropical Diseases, 27, e20200147. https://doi.org/10.1590/1678-9199-JVATITD-2020-0147

Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC). (2016). How infections spread. https://www.cdc.gov/infectioncontrol/spread/index.html

Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC). (2021). Vaccines and preventable diseases. https://www.cdc.gov/vaccines/vpd/mmr/public/index.html

Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC). (2023a). How vaccines work. https://www.cdc.gov/vaccines/hcp/conversations/understanding-vacc-work.html

Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC). (2023b). Immunization schedules. https://www.cdc.gov/vaccines/schedules/hcp/imz/child-adolescent.html

Chen, L., Deng, H., Cui, H., Fang, J., Zuo, Z., Deng, J., Li, Y., Wang, X., & Zhao, L. (2018). Inflammatory responses and inflammation-associated diseases in organs. Oncotarget, 9(6), 7204–7218. https://doi.org/10.18632/oncotarget.23208

DailyMed. (Updated July 21, 2023). Acthib–haemophilus influenzae type b strain 1482 capsular polysaccharide tetanus toxoid conjugate antigen kit. https://dailymed.nlm.nih.gov/dailymed/drugInfo.cfm?setid=8143d01c-4911-40db-95b2-47f3ebea2a7d

DailyMed. (Updated March 9, 2023). Adalimumab–adalimumab-adaz injection, solution. https://dailymed.nlm.nih.gov/dailymed/drugInfo.cfm?setid=3468792f-63ef-4916-8ed1-8214f327d9dd

DailyMed. (Updated October 18, 2022). Advil–ibuprofen sodium tablet, coated. https://dailymed.nlm.nih.gov/dailymed/drugInfo.cfm?setid=5be198b8-396e-4b44-8819-e2e3b5d2ad0e

DailyMed. (Updated June 30, 2023). Afluria quadrivalent (influenza a virus a/victoria/4897/2022 ivr-238 (h1n1) antigen (propiolactone inactivated), influenza a virus a/darwin/6/2021 ivr-227 (h3n2) antigen (propiolactone inactivated), influenza b virus b/austria/1359417/2021 bvr-26 antigen (propiolactone inactivated), influenza b virus b/phu*ket/3073/2013 bvr-1b antigen- propiolactone inactivated injection, suspension. https://dailymed.nlm.nih.gov/dailymed/drugInfo.cfm?setid=fb8f92de-56eb-41e3-b3f8-f1b9911e3c40

DailyMed. (Updated October 31, 2022). Aleve caplets–naproxen sodium tablet. https://dailymed.nlm.nih.gov/dailymed/drugInfo.cfm?setid=a3745850-3e32-4884-b315-161bcb9996ed

DailyMed. (Updated January 31, 2019). Allopurinol tablet. https://dailymed.nlm.nih.gov/dailymed/drugInfo.cfm?setid=a80fe56f-8d03-423f-8e2a-7ec8c9e5045b

DailyMed. (Updated May 22, 2022). Aspirin 325 mg–aspirin tablet. https://dailymed.nlm.nih.gov/dailymed/drugInfo.cfm?setid=d71a22e8-9e39-a672-e053-2a95a90a1403

DailyMed. (Updated February 24, 2022). Aspirin 325 mg EC–aspirin tablet. https://dailymed.nlm.nih.gov/dailymed/drugInfo.cfm?setid=9d0449d2-c0c6-4e74-931b-35dc62584028

DailyMed. (Updated September 23, 2022). Avastin–bevacizumab injection, solution. https://dailymed.nlm.nih.gov/dailymed/drugInfo.cfm?setid=939b5d1f-9fb2-4499-80ef-0607aa6b114e

DailyMed. (Updated December 21, 2022). Azathioprine tablet. https://dailymed.nlm.nih.gov/dailymed/drugInfo.cfm?setid=59f3219f-898f-4d05-a430-c2b3f5255af1

DailyMed. (Updated January 6, 2022). Bexsero–neisseria meningitidis serogroup b nhba fusion protein antigen, neisseria meningitidis serogroup b FHBP fusion protein antigen and neisseria meningitidis serogroup b nada protein antigen injection, suspension. https://dailymed.nlm.nih.gov/dailymed/drugInfo.cfm?setid=f70cf2fc-6e6d-4a74-9f7a-db8fec072fd7

DailyMed. (Updated October 15, 2019). Bortezomib injection, powder, lyophilized, for solution. https://dailymed.nlm.nih.gov/dailymed/drugInfo.cfm?setid=287ce008-3d9c-4914-acf0-01c372399b8d

DailyMed. (Updated January 31, 2022). Celecoxib capsule. https://dailymed.nlm.nih.gov/dailymed/drugInfo.cfm?setid=05224473-27dc-4f6d-a52a-c40a7af2f2f4

DailyMed. (Updated March 10, 2023). Cellcept—mycophenolate mofetil tablet, film coated; Cellcept—mycophenolate mofetil capsule; Cellcept—mycophenolate mofetil hydrochloride injection, powder, lyophilized, for solution; Cellcept—mycophenolate mofetil powder, for suspension. https://dailymed.nlm.nih.gov/dailymed/drugInfo.cfm?setid=37241e87-4af4-4dc3-a1aa-ea6f20d8dc40

DailyMed. (Updated June 15, 2022). Chloroquine phosphate tablet. https://dailymed.nlm.nih.gov/dailymed/drugInfo.cfm?setid=eb02c52d-907c-43fb-aa8f-2f378a9087e7

DailyMed. (Updated March 5, 2023). Colchicine capsule. https://dailymed.nlm.nih.gov/dailymed/drugInfo.cfm?setid=ee1583ac-c308-4beb-b602-9ecac4977026

DailyMed. (Updated April 28, 2023). Comirnaty—COVID-19 vaccine, MRNA injection, suspension. https://dailymed.nlm.nih.gov/dailymed/drugInfo.cfm?setid=48c86164-de07-4041-b9dc-f2b5744714e5

DailyMed. (Updated August 21, 2023). Daptacel (Corynebacterium diphtheriae toxoid antigen (formaldehyde inactivated), clostridium tetani toxoid antigen (formaldehyde inactivated), bordetella pertussis toxoid antigen (glutaraldehyde inactivated), bordetella pertussis filamentous hemagglutinin antigen- formaldehyde inactivated, bordetella pertussis pertactin antigen, and bordetella pertussis fimbriae 2/3 antigen injection, suspension. https://dailymed.nlm.nih.gov/dailymed/drugInfo.cfm?setid=06f34d0f-4e72-41d3-967f-8abf3f2005c1

DailyMed. (Updated November 22, 2022). Dexamethasone 1.5 mg tablet. https://dailymed.nlm.nih.gov/dailymed/drugInfo.cfm?setid=7b997c26-e6a3-403c-93fb-b1290cf5dbad

DailyMed. (Updated February 3, 2022). Diclofenac potassium tablet, coated. https://dailymed.nlm.nih.gov/dailymed/drugInfo.cfm?setid=82218d5c-1625-471a-aabe-f43338e5176b

DailyMed. (Updated June 16, 2023). Enbrel—etanercept solution, Enbrel—etanercept kit. https://dailymed.nlm.nih.gov/dailymed/drugInfo.cfm?setid=a002b40c-097d-47a5-957f-7a7b1807af7f

DailyMed. (Updated July 7, 2023). Fluzone high-dose quadrivalent northern hemisphere vaccine. https://dailymed.nlm.nih.gov/dailymed/drugInfo.cfm?setid=03f2c9fc-534b-49ec-9113-81938b1eadb9

DailyMed. (Updated June 13, 2023). Gardasil 9—human papillomavirus 9-valent vaccine, recombinant injection, suspension. https://dailymed.nlm.nih.gov/dailymed/drugInfo.cfm?setid=a21f4f4b-b891-4f25-b747-cb9ec7d865d6

DailyMed. (Updated September 1, 2022). Havrix—hepatitis a vaccine injection, suspension. https://dailymed.nlm.nih.gov/dailymed/drugInfo.cfm?setid=f9499a4d-1288-4bd3-9d59-1d72092c38cd

DailyMed. (Updated March 15, 2023). Hydroxychloroquine sulfate tablet. https://dailymed.nlm.nih.gov/dailymed/drugInfo.cfm?setid=84b00366-96ef-41e1-bac6-5d24acdb9e1d

DailyMed. (Updated September 29, 2022). Indomethacin capsule. https://dailymed.nlm.nih.gov/dailymed/drugInfo.cfm?setid=9607920c-4d25-40b9-957e-87e9ca5574e8

DailyMed. (Updated December 14, 2022). Indomethacin capsule, extended release. https://dailymed.nlm.nih.gov/dailymed/drugInfo.cfm?setid=dbad7e61-2347-43b1-a422-9183e41c10ea

DailyMed. (Updated October 15, 2021). Infliximab injection, powder, lyophilized, for solution. https://dailymed.nlm.nih.gov/dailymed/search.cfm?labeltype=all&query=INFLIXIMAB&pagesize=20&page=1

DailyMed. (Updated June 7, 2022). IPOL (poliovirus type 1 antigen (formaldehyde inactivated), poliovirus type 2 antigen (formaldehyde inactivated), and poliovirus type 3 antigen- formaldehyde inactivated injection, suspension. https://dailymed.nlm.nih.gov/dailymed/drugInfo.cfm?setid=34a647f5-8728-451b-b918-94c8acd15974

DailyMed. (Updated December 8, 2022). Meloxicam capsule. https://dailymed.nlm.nih.gov/dailymed/drugInfo.cfm?setid=43e2b0f3-cf34-4f51-aa93-39ed98cab449

DailyMed. (Updated August 6, 2021). Methotrexate sodium tablet. https://dailymed.nlm.nih.gov/dailymed/drugInfo.cfm?setid=8f1260de-b60c-4f0e-8af6-0e957b0a281b

DailyMed. (Updated January 20, 2023). Mycophenolic acid tablet, delayed release. https://dailymed.nlm.nih.gov/dailymed/drugInfo.cfm?setid=dc24aa15-330c-4698-872f-159d7e582b4b

DailyMed. (Updated March 4, 2021). Neulasta—pegfilgrastim kit NEULASTA- pegfilgrastim injection. https://dailymed.nlm.nih.gov/dailymed/drugInfo.cfm?setid=fdfe5d72-6b80-435a-afa4-c5d74dd852ce

DailyMed. (Updated February 2, 2023). Piroxicam capsule. https://dailymed.nlm.nih.gov/dailymed/drugInfo.cfm?setid=70be7d33-bc8b-4f48-84c6-a8e3d1476e97

DailyMed. (Updated March 7, 2023). Pneumovax 23—pneumococcal vaccine polyvalent injection, solution. https://dailymed.nlm.nih.gov/dailymed/drugInfo.cfm?setid=bb362a20-6d91-4ae8-bebb-9ee8b2591814

DailyMed. (Updated January 31, 2018). Prednisone—prednisone tablet. https://dailymed.nlm.nih.gov/dailymed/drugInfo.cfm?setid=e9d6774e-45f6-419f-b388-8dfb4dd34944

DailyMed. (Updated May 5, 2023). Prevnar 13—pneumococcal 13-valent conjugate vaccine injection, suspension. https://dailymed.nlm.nih.gov/dailymed/drugInfo.cfm?setid=5d49181b-b974-a5da-3b38-12a3a87bb96b

DailyMed. (Updated December 11, 2018). Probenecid tablet, film coated. https://dailymed.nlm.nih.gov/dailymed/drugInfo.cfm?setid=ae126418-5474-4fbe-b83c-bde8b2b4ae6e

DailyMed. (Updated May 24, 2023). Recombivax HB (hepatitis b vaccine—recombinant injection, suspension). https://dailymed.nlm.nih.gov/dailymed/drugInfo.cfm?setid=b5bd99e4-569d-48d5-ba75-16e69f8c409a

DailyMed. (Updated June 6, 2023). Rituxan—rituximab injection, solution. https://dailymed.nlm.nih.gov/dailymed/drugInfo.cfm?setid=b172773b-3905-4a1c-ad95-bab4b6126563

DailyMed. (Updated November 4, 2022). Rotarix—rotavirus vaccine, live, oral kit; Rotarix—rotavirus vaccine, live, oral solution. https://dailymed.nlm.nih.gov/dailymed/drugInfo.cfm?setid=f3182470-1965-4e20-dbaf-e3506f893ea5

DailyMed. (Updated March 7, 2023). Rotateq—rotavirus vaccine, live, oral, pentavalent solution. https://dailymed.nlm.nih.gov/dailymed/drugInfo.cfm?setid=aaf3b24e-85fd-43ee-b657-2ee4df312ec3

DailyMed. (Updated May 22, 2023). Shingrix—zoster vaccine recombinant, adjuvanted kit. https://dailymed.nlm.nih.gov/dailymed/drugInfo.cfm?setid=0280849d-5c78-4a9d-8941-4eab429f6bd8

DailyMed. (Updated May 11, 2023). Spikevax—COVID-19 vaccine, MRNA injection, suspension. https://dailymed.nlm.nih.gov/dailymed/drugInfo.cfm?setid=23e93ef9-c51c-4e13-9cb3-e65b6a0f1968

DailyMed. (Updated February 28, 2022). Sulfasalazine tablet. https://dailymed.nlm.nih.gov/dailymed/drugInfo.cfm?setid=ad13d598-7b1b-48d3-a25b-08635b419f99

DailyMed. (Updated June 26, 2023). Varivax—varicella virus vaccine live injection, powder, lyophilized, for suspension. https://dailymed.nlm.nih.gov/dailymed/drugInfo.cfm?setid=524cf052-e90e-4595-af0a-608edbe9bd31

Drosos, A. A., Pelechas, E., Kaltsonoudis, E., Markatseli, T. E., & Voulgari, P. V. (2021). Biologic therapies and autoimmune phenomena. Mediterranean Journal of Rheumatology, 32(2), 96–103. https://doi.org/10.31138/mjr.32.2.96

Ghlichloo, I., & Gerriets, V. (2023). Nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs). StatPearls. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/books/NBK547742/

Greenspan, N. S. (2023). Epitopes, paratopes, and other topes 30 years on: Understanding what we are talking about. Human Immunology, 84(9), 429–438. doi: 10.1016/j.humimm.2023.06.006. https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/37407356/

Grubbs, H., & Kahwaji, C. I. (2022). Physiology, active immunity. StatPearls. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/books/NBK513280/

Hannoodee, S., & Nasuruddin, D. N. (2022). Acute inflammatory response. StatPearls. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/books/NBK556083/

Haładyj, E., Sikora, M., Felis-Giemza, A., & Olesińska, M. (2018). Antimalarials—are they effective and safe in rheumatic diseases?Reumatologia,56(3), 164–173. https://doi.org/10.5114/reum.2018.76904

Justiz-Vaillant, A. A., Jamal, Z., Patel, P., & Ramphul, K. (2023). Immunoglobulin. StatPearls https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/books/NBK513460/

Justiz-Vaillant, A. A., Sabir, S. & Jan, A. (2022). Physiology, immune response. StatPearls. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/books/NBK539801/

Karagiannis, S. N. & Arnold, J. N. (2022). Immune cell-antibody interactions in health and disease.Clinical and Experimental Immunology,209(1), 1–3. https://doi.org/10.1093/cei/uxac065

McDermott, A. (2021). Core concept: Herd immunity is an important—and often misunderstood—public health phenomenon.Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America,118(21), e2107692118. https://doi.org/10.1073/pnas.2107692118

Mysler, E., Caubet, M., & Lizarraga, A. (2021). Current and emerging DMARDs for the treatment of rheumatoid arthritis.Open Access Rheumatology: Research and Reviews,13, 139–152. https://doi.org/10.2147/OARRR.S282627

National Institute for Health and Care Excellence (NICE). (2022) Gout: diagnosis and management. NICE Guideline, No. 219.https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/books/NBK583530/

Patel, R. H., & Mohiuddin, S. S. (2023). Biochemistry, histamine. StatPearls. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/books/NBK557790/

Shen, S. C., & Dubey, V. (2019). Addressing vaccine hesitancy: Clinical guidance for primary care physicians working with parents.Canadian Family Physician, Medecin de Famille Canadien,65(3), 175–181. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6515949/

Slifka, M. K., & Amanna, I. J. (2018). Passive immunization.Plotkin’s Vaccines, 84–95. https://doi.org/10.1016/B978-0-323-35761-6.00008-0

Thau, L., Asuka, E., & Mahajan, K. (2023). Physiology, opsonization. StatPearls. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/books/NBK534215/

U.S. Food and Drug Administration. (2023). Biosimilar and interchangeable biologics: More treatment choices. https://www.fda.gov/consumers/consumer-updates/biosimilar-and-interchangeable-biologics-more-treatment-choices

World Health Organization (WHO). (2021). Vaccines. https://www.who.int/travel-advice/vaccines

Chapter 7 Anti-infective Drugs

American Chemical Society. (n.d.). Discovery and development of penicillin. https://www.acs.org/education/whatischemistry/landmarks/flemingpenicillin.html

Burzynski, J., Mangan, J. M., Lam, C. K., Macaraig, M., Salerno, M. M., deCastro, B. R., Goswami, N. D., Lin, C. Y., Schluger, N. W., & Vernon, A. (2022). In-person vs electronic directly observed therapy for tuberculosis treatment adherence. JAMA Network Open, 5(1), e2144210. https://doi.org/10.1001/jamanetworkopen.2021.44210

Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. (2018, October 22). Reported tuberculosis in the United States, 2017. https://www.cdc.gov/tb/statistics/reports/2017/default.htm

Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. (2021, February 18). Sexually transmitted infections prevalence, incidence, and cost estimates in the United States. https://www.cdc.gov/std/statistics/prevalence-incidence-cost-2020.htm

Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. (2023a, April 11). Sexually transmitted disease surveillance 2021. https://www.cdc.gov/std/statistics/2021/default.htm

Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. (2023b, April 11). U.S. STI epidemic showed no signs of slowing in 2021—Cases continued to escalate. https://www.cdc.gov/nchhstp/newsroom/2023/STD-Surveillance-Report-2021-media-statement.html

Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. (2023c). STD health equity. https://www.cdc.gov/std/health-disparities/default.htm

DailyMed. (Updated July 5, 2023). Acyclovir sodium injection, solution. https://dailymed.nlm.nih.gov/dailymed/drugInfo.cfm?setid=ae921e4e-b8ae-4a45-acc1-32e5e719812b

DailyMed. (Updated September 12, 2022). Acyclovir suspension. https://dailymed.nlm.nih.gov/dailymed/drugInfo.cfm?setid=2ca1395f-96b4-4543-8eed-bd07c62bbc7c

DailyMed. (Updated May 19, 2008). Amoxicillin capsule. https://dailymed.nlm.nih.gov/dailymed/drugInfo.cfm?setid=649d285c-8fcb-48dd-aa5e-2f34128102f5

DailyMed. (Updated January 3, 2022). Amphotericin B injection, powder, lyophilized, for solution. https://dailymed.nlm.nih.gov/dailymed/drugInfo.cfm?setid=a0a54943-9ce4-4f3e-b681-a1a9144c16ce

DailyMed. (Updated February 2, 2022). Atazanavir capsule. https://dailymed.nlm.nih.gov/dailymed/drugInfo.cfm?setid=8a0c609f-e296-4925-a35c-e93a04467655

DailyMed. (Updated March 21, 2023). Augmentin—Amoxicillin and clavulanate potassium for suspension. https://dailymed.nlm.nih.gov/dailymed/drugInfo.cfm?setid=f55f61af-10f1-0e17-e053-2995a90adc43

DailyMed. (Updated December 16, 2019). Azithromycin suspension. https://dailymed.nlm.nih.gov/dailymed/drugInfo.cfm?setid=071e71b8-bb53-4075-9bda-2ec48affa018

DailyMed. (Updated April 29, 2021). Bactrim DS—Sulfamethoxazole and trimethoprim tablet; Bactrim-—Sulfamethoxazole and trimethoprim tablet. https://dailymed.nlm.nih.gov/dailymed/drugInfo.cfm?setid=f59d0c04-9c66-4d53-a0e1-cb55570deb62

DailyMed. (Updated May 10, 2022). Baricitinib tablet, film coated. https://dailymed.nlm.nih.gov/dailymed/drugInfo.cfm?setid=7052c055-fedf-453b-86bc-01f5465eb157

DailyMed. (Updated October 13, 2023). Bicillin L-A—Penicillin G benzathine injection, suspension. https://dailymed.nlm.nih.gov/dailymed/drugInfo.cfm?setid=012d46f1-d0a0-4676-a879-cd320297ab16

DailyMed. (Updated January 21, 2022). Ceftriaxone sodium injection, powder, for solution. https://dailymed.nlm.nih.gov/dailymed/drugInfo.cfm?setid=4d1ad77f-2c6b-4250-82e5-ab3574444e08

DailyMed. (Updated June 19, 2018). Cephalexin capsule. https://dailymed.nlm.nih.gov/dailymed/drugInfo.cfm?setid=602fae70-3b8a-4f09-8db1-41fef4a2ecd7

DailyMed. (Updated June 26, 2023). Ciprofloxacin hydrochloride tablet, film coated. https://dailymed.nlm.nih.gov/dailymed/drugInfo.cfm?setid=2b3b6a9f-259c-4736-b88f-f49d1eb64286

DailyMed. (Updated December 8, 2022). Clindamycin-clindamycin phosphate injection. https://dailymed.nlm.nih.gov/dailymed/drugInfo.cfm?setid=57c52462-fe8f-4202-ac30-3bd77f8d603f

DailyMed. (Updated February 27, 2023). Clindamycin hydrochloride capsule. https://dailymed.nlm.nih.gov/dailymed/drugInfo.cfm?setid=2367340c-d297-4a3f-8253-6d27a0ed39cb

DailyMed. (Updated October 12, 2021). Doxycycline capsule. https://dailymed.nlm.nih.gov/dailymed/drugInfo.cfm?setid=d77e2a9c-c536-4e66-b87a-40b085737699

DailyMed. (Updated May 18, 2023). Eraxis—Anidulafungin injection, powder, lyophilized, for solution. https://dailymed.nlm.nih.gov/dailymed/drugInfo.cfm?setid=a88d9010-55fb-4a02-baff-042cd27688ea

DailyMed. (Updated September 9, 2022). Erythromycin ointment. https://dailymed.nlm.nih.gov/dailymed/drugInfo.cfm?setid=a0353c10-48c9-4d2a-8047-56ea68ace956

DailyMed. (Updated December 27, 2022). Erythromycin tablet, film coated. https://dailymed.nlm.nih.gov/dailymed/drugInfo.cfm?setid=0aaf09b7-a78b-4525-a857-ef12e3f4b2f9

DailyMed. (Updated December 29, 2022). Ethambutol hydrochloride tablet, film coated. https://dailymed.nlm.nih.gov/dailymed/drugInfo.cfm?setid=08decdf3-a397-42e7-8ac3-e489c0cc7085

DailyMed. (Updated June 15, 2021). Etravirine tablet. https://dailymed.nlm.nih.gov/dailymed/drugInfo.cfm?setid=4e009f19-4609-4020-bee1-dc27c504046c

DailyMed. (Updated February 2, 2023). Fluconazole powder, for suspension. https://dailymed.nlm.nih.gov/dailymed/drugInfo.cfm?setid=bf588f7e-89de-4b4e-8d33-c1ff2be1b34e

DailyMed. (Updated March 2, 2022). Flucytosine capsule. https://dailymed.nlm.nih.gov/dailymed/drugInfo.cfm?setid=8b55832c-6771-4f5b-9aef-f88a1d22795e

DailyMed. (Updated December 1, 2019). Fuzeon-enfuvirtide kit. https://dailymed.nlm.nih.gov/dailymed/drugInfo.cfm?setid=6935e846-d5a1-49e5-89a2-f8ebe4d5590d

DailyMed. (Updated October 20, 2011). Ganciclovir capsule. https://dailymed.nlm.nih.gov/dailymed/drugInfo.cfm?setid=3406db8a-5ae9-4120-94bd-036701adbeca

DailyMed. (Updated September 7, 2023). Gentamicin injection, solution. https://dailymed.nlm.nih.gov/dailymed/drugInfo.cfm?setid=51fffac8-fb6e-4f7f-b2de-440252781a42

DailyMed. (Updated August 11, 2010). Isentress—Raltegravir tablet, film coated. https://dailymed.nlm.nih.gov/dailymed/drugInfo.cfm?setid=cbd3e1af-81f3-44f6-8e45-652deab7a508

DailyMed. (Updated February 9, 2016). Isoniazid tablet. https://dailymed.nlm.nih.gov/dailymed/drugInfo.cfm?setid=b9e6aa9e-c905-4774-b4d4-ae6acc2f64a1

DailyMed. (Updated October 7, 2022). Juluca-dolutegravir sodium and rilpivirine hydrochloride tablet, film coated. https://dailymed.nlm.nih.gov/dailymed/drugInfo.cfm?setid=806653d1-bf35-4924-b999-ad5d21821cc1

DailyMed. (Updated July 17, 2023). Lagevrio—Molnupiravir capsule. https://dailymed.nlm.nih.gov/dailymed/drugInfo.cfm?setid=1b0da643-ab23-4a0b-a9ec-a434522446d0

DailyMed. (Updated March 17, 2009). Lindane lotion. https://dailymed.nlm.nih.gov/dailymed/drugInfo.cfm?setid=54b9526e-29ab-46b0-ab82-d765fbee5c6f

DailyMed. (Updated December 27, 2022). Linezolid injection. https://dailymed.nlm.nih.gov/dailymed/drugInfo.cfm?setid=d05541c6-fd63-cc99-e053-2995a90a4ec7

DailyMed. (Updated April 29, 2010). Mebendazole tablet, chewable. https://dailymed.nlm.nih.gov/dailymed/drugInfo.cfm?setid=fa778759-2b9a-4446-ba06-d3c486019e79

DailyMed. (Updated December 22, 2021). Metronidazole capsule. https://dailymed.nlm.nih.gov/dailymed/drugInfo.cfm?setid=f9b4c86c-932b-4b43-ab1a-6d9e07958044

DailyMed. (Updated March 31, 2022). Nitazoxanide tablet, film coated. https://dailymed.nlm.nih.gov/dailymed/drugInfo.cfm?setid=c0dc0656-3c46-43f9-adea-5285c522cef8

DailyMed. (Updated January 10, 2023). Nystatin oral suspension. https://dailymed.nlm.nih.gov/dailymed/drugInfo.cfm?setid=b9d1d7bc-97e4-8fcb-e053-2995a90a7b4c

DailyMed. (Updated January 30, 2023). Oseltamivir capsule. https://dailymed.nlm.nih.gov/dailymed/drugInfo.cfm?setid=0a7181a6-e9eb-4047-a26f-4268f174db16

DailyMed. (Updated June 12, 2023). Paxlovid—Nirmatrelvir and ritonavir kit. https://dailymed.nlm.nih.gov/dailymed/drugInfo.cfm?setid=7bdddfba-bd31-44cb-ba9e-23a4e17a4691

DailyMed. (Updated December 31, 2019). Permethrin cream. https://dailymed.nlm.nih.gov/dailymed/drugInfo.cfm?setid=ad568fc3-8e4a-4cff-9bbb-35312451c43b

DailyMed. (Updated March 1, 2022). Pyrazinamide tablet. https://dailymed.nlm.nih.gov/dailymed/drugInfo.cfm?setid=db250a85-2e20-87e9-e053-2a95a90a72b6

DailyMed. (Updated July 12, 2022). Rifampin capsule. https://dailymed.nlm.nih.gov/dailymed/drugInfo.cfm?setid=26a2dbca-5090-4f6c-99ed-e11a70bb5af0

DailyMed. (Updated February 6, 2023). Sovaldi—Sofosbuvir tablet, film coated; Sovaldi—Sofosbuvir pellet. https://dailymed.nlm.nih.gov/dailymed/drugInfo.cfm?setid=80beab2c-396e-4a37-a4dc-40fdb62859cf

DailyMed. (Updated May 31, 2023). Spinosad suspension. https://dailymed.nlm.nih.gov/dailymed/drugInfo.cfm?setid=8e87bd3b-db25-4e97-bf57-96c875f67ce1

DailyMed. (Updated December 5, 2022). Tenofovir disoproxil fumarate tablet. https://dailymed.nlm.nih.gov/dailymed/drugInfo.cfm?setid=de27413a-6579-4586-80dc-39c712652952

DailyMed. (Updated January 24, 2019). Tivicay—Dolutegravir sodium tablet, film coated. https://dailymed.nlm.nih.gov/dailymed/drugInfo.cfm?setid=807b0cd2-093c-4353-a4a5-2e1f264616ba

DailyMed. (Updated September 15, 2021). Tybost—Cobicistat tablet, film coated. https://dailymed.nlm.nih.gov/dailymed/drugInfo.cfm?setid=3784c35c-e87f-410c-900b-8fd6313c6010

DailyMed. (Updated January 4, 2022). Vancocin – vancomycin hydrochloride capsule. https://dailymed.nlm.nih.gov/dailymed/drugInfo.cfm?setid=a078d9c2-f89c-4f9f-8ded-60ffb2983c3f

DailyMed. (Updated September 22, 2022). Vancomycin hydrochloride injection, powder, lypophilized, for solution. https://dailymed.nlm.nih.gov/dailymed/drugInfo.cfm?setid=f28e3c2b-ae31-4c2a-8178-53962b7b213c

DailyMed. (Updated January 27, 2022). Veklury—Remdesivir injection; Veklury—Remdesivir injection, powder, lyophilized, for solution. https://dailymed.nlm.nih.gov/dailymed/drugInfo.cfm?setid=98b7e6bf-2668-4a61-a874-194eb674b15c

Norris, A. L., Rich, C., Krieger, N., Guthrie, K. M., Kaplan, C., Carey, K. B., & Carey, M. P. (2019). Sexual risk behavior and substance use among young, diverse women seeking care at a reproductive health clinic. BMC Women’s Health, 19(1), 15. https://doi.org/10.1186/s12905-019-0709-2

Shahrokhi, M., & Gupta, V. (2023). Propranolol. StatPearls. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/books/NBK557801/

World Health Organization. (n.d.). WHO coronavirus (COVID-19) dashboard. https://covid19.who.int

World Health Organization. (2023a, April 21). Tuberculosis. https://www.who.int/news-room/fact-sheets/detail/tuberculosis

World Health Organization. (2023b, July 10). Sexually transmitted infections (STIs). https://www.who.int/news-room/fact-sheets/detail/sexually-transmitted-infections-(stis)

Chapter 8 Introduction to Cancer Therapy and Cancer Drugs

American Cancer Society. (2021). Hair loss. https://www.cancer.org/cancer/managing-cancer/side-effects/hair-skin-nails/hair-loss/choosing-and-wearing-wig.html

Amjad, M. T., & Kasi, A. (2020).Cancer chemotherapy. StatPearls. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/books/NBK564367/

Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. (2020, March 31). Family health history and the BRCA1 and BRCA2 genes. https://www.cdc.gov/genomics/disease/breast_ovarian_cancer/fam_hist_genes.htm

Chemocare. (2023). Chemotherapy terms. https://chemocare.com/what-is-chemotherapy/chemotherapy-terms

DailyMed. (Updated April 17, 2023). Anastrozole tablet. https://dailymed.nlm.nih.gov/dailymed/drugInfo.cfm?setid=f86d2158-b078-3f74-e053-6394a90aa4b6

DailyMed. (Updated May 19, 2023). Atezolizumab injection, solution. https://dailymed.nlm.nih.gov/dailymed/drugInfo.cfm?setid=6fa682c9-a312-4932-9831-f286908660ee

DailyMed. (Updated October 20, 2022). Bicalutamide tablet. https://dailymed.nlm.nih.gov/dailymed/drugInfo.cfm?setid=7c295b64-ec39-42ec-9f02-da5b42e775e1

DailyMed. (Updated April 2, 2019). Bleomycin injection. https://dailymed.nlm.nih.gov/dailymed/drugInfo.cfm?setid=497e462a-a295-4db1-9002-d2633efbd676

DailyMed. (Updated January 5, 2024). Busulfan injection. https://dailymed.nlm.nih.gov/dailymed/drugInfo.cfm?setid=fe0ddd44-ef02-4827-b164-7fcbb45bcc1b

DailyMed. (Updated December 22, 2020). Capecitabine tablet, film coated. https://dailymed.nlm.nih.gov/dailymed/drugInfo.cfm?setid=7f555b6b-60db-45e2-a61e-537e57f43fdc

DailyMed. (Updated December 2, 2022). Carmustine–carmustine kit. https://dailymed.nlm.nih.gov/dailymed/drugInfo.cfm?setid=0bdd91e1-fd94-4ce8-9c99-1b0fa6fe8ae4

DailyMed. (Updated July 7, 2021). Carboplatin injection, solution. https://dailymed.nlm.nih.gov/dailymed/drugInfo.cfm?setid=b4fa7aac-c9d2-4af4-a281-3e6cfc502ff6

DailyMed. (Updated June 8, 2021). Cisplatin injection. https://dailymed.nlm.nih.gov/dailymed/drugInfo.cfm?setid=b2b029f5-0d7e-4e7f-accc-b722aec34c68

DailyMed. (Updated February 17, 2023). Cyclophosphamide capsule. https://dailymed.nlm.nih.gov/dailymed/drugInfo.cfm?setid=3d6e68b1-5120-4cbb-a9d2-fb09d1b74ea1

DailyMed. (Updated September 8, 2021). Cyclophosphamide injection. https://dailymed.nlm.nih.gov/dailymed/drugInfo.cfm?setid=3c1eb470-0bba-457d-94e3-b9508f0d398a

DailyMed. (Updated June 3, 2021). Cytarabine injection, solution. https://dailymed.nlm.nih.gov/dailymed/drugInfo.cfm?setid=c4fdc56e-efd7-4825-a518-ef430b2b3df0

DailyMed. (Updated August 11, 2022). Dactinomycin injection, powder, lyophilized, for solution. https://dailymed.nlm.nih.gov/dailymed/drugInfo.cfm?setid=5da55538-2602-4704-a9da-603c9f7ff7dc

DailyMed. (Updated December 30, 2019). Daunorubicin hydrochloride injection. https://dailymed.nlm.nih.gov/dailymed/drugInfo.cfm?setid=227784a8-ce68-4dd4-8ac5-a65265969677

DailyMed. (Updated July 15, 2009). Dexamethasone elixir. https://dailymed.nlm.nih.gov/dailymed/drugInfo.cfm?setid=e59d3b87-af2e-4262-b89d-e95aa79f11b7

DailyMed. (Updated January 21, 2021). Dexamethasone injection, solution. https://dailymed.nlm.nih.gov/dailymed/drugInfo.cfm?setid=4dd55929-fe0a-4884-ae0d-6f9435920eb7

DailyMed. (Updated January 27, 2020). Diphenhydramine-diphenhydramine hydrochloride capsule. https://dailymed.nlm.nih.gov/dailymed/drugInfo.cfm?setid=ef6b86cc-bfc5-4e74-a806-33de9a68ce45

DailyMed. (Updated November 11, 2019). Diphenhydramine-diphenhydramine hydrochloride injection, solution. https://dailymed.nlm.nih.gov/dailymed/drugInfo.cfm?setid=921b9f64-1096-46db-866a-67f0f9ff6790

DailyMed. (Updated March 19, 2021). Docetaxel anhydrous injection, solution. https://dailymed.nlm.nih.gov/dailymed/drugInfo.cfm?setid=9cd030b6-f98d-451e-93cb-0a998f4c6012

DailyMed. (Updated December 31, 2019). Doxorubicin hydrochloride–doxorubicin hydrochloride injection, solution. https://www.dailymed.nlm.nih.gov/dailymed/drugInfo.cfm?setid=e0349f98-42fa-4003-b6d8-a1db1401b0ef

DailyMed. (Updated June 16, 2023). Durvalumab injection, solution. https://dailymed.nlm.nih.gov/dailymed/drugInfo.cfm?setid=8baba4ea-2855-42fa-9bd9-5a7548d4cec3

DailyMed. (Updated January 14, 2021). Epirubicin hydrochloride injection. https://dailymed.nlm.nih.gov/dailymed/drugInfo.cfm?setid=ab115cc4-43cd-4a59-aa01-89e356ce3a08

DailyMed. (Updated July 25, 2018). Epogen–epoetin alfa solution. https://dailymed.nlm.nih.gov/dailymed/drugInfo.cfm?setid=1f2d0b28-9cc5-4523-80b8-637fdaf3f7a5

DailyMed. (Updated June 2, 2022). Etoposide injection, solution. https://dailymed.nlm.nih.gov/dailymed/drugInfo.cfm?setid=fe870629-104d-4d67-a7c6-f53bc588121e

DailyMed. (Updated December 14, 2021). Exemestane tablet. https://dailymed.nlm.nih.gov/dailymed/drugInfo.cfm?setid=abde1ccd-0ec9-40d4-b205-fbc00f5878b9

DailyMed. (Updated December 31, 2019). Fludarabine phosphate injection, solution. https://dailymed.nlm.nih.gov/dailymed/drugInfo.cfm?setid=cf5255cc-91fd-4132-973b-764dba142eae

DailyMed. (Updated January 2, 2023). Fluorouracil injection, solution. https://www.dailymed.nlm.nih.gov/dailymed/drugInfo.cfm?setid=6b34cbf2-66f9-48a4-b41f-deb84ba8e8c4

DailyMed. (Updated November 9, 2018). Flutamide capsule. https://dailymed.nlm.nih.gov/dailymed/drugInfo.cfm?setid=328910be-4d0e-4d7b-a062-e3ce0cf793b9

DailyMed. (Updated May 6, 2021). Fulvestrant injection. https://dailymed.nlm.nih.gov/dailymed/drugInfo.cfm?setid=b471eb51-488e-5312-e053-2a95a90a8116

DailyMed. (Updated January 4, 2020). Gemcitabine hydrochloride injection. https://dailymed.nlm.nih.gov/dailymed/drugInfo.cfm?setid=518b9c2e-fdbe-46de-9859-02314c220d58

DailyMed. (Updated March 29, 2023). Gleostine–lomustine capsule. https://dailymed.nlm.nih.gov/dailymed/drugInfo.cfm?setid=7f77526b-4c40-409c-82ea-d0f934d89cc2

DailyMed. (Updated May 18, 2023). Imbruvica–ibrutinib capsule, tablet. https://dailymed.nlm.nih.gov/dailymed/drugInfo.cfm?setid=0dfd0279-ff17-4ea9-89be-9803c71bab44

DailyMed. (Updated August 14, 2021). Keytruda–pembrolizumab injection, solution. https://dailymed.nlm.nih.gov/dailymed/drugInfo.cfm?setid=9333c79b-d487-4538-a9f0-71b91a02b287

DailyMed. (Updated August 1, 2022). Leukeran–chlorambucil tablet, film coated. https://dailymed.nlm.nih.gov/dailymed/drugInfo.cfm?setid=967ed3ff-d99b-41e8-b768-dfb586d3d9a6

DailyMed. (Updated December 1, 2009). Loratadine tablet. https://dailymed.nlm.nih.gov/dailymed/drugInfo.cfm?setid=7a2f0eef-7803-497d-926c-a6163a89eb56

DailyMed. (Updated June 4, 2021). Methotrexate injection. https://dailymed.nlm.nih.gov/dailymed/drugInfo.cfm?setid=dd035a9f-cd40-4314-b9d8-2294b8a924e2

DailyMed. (Updated June 21, 2021). Mercaptopurine tablet. https://dailymed.nlm.nih.gov/dailymed/drugInfo.cfm?setid=c3b5b8b0-bc5c-4ce9-bbdc-febba60c2658

DailyMed. (Updated August 22, 2023). Mitomycin injection, powder, lyophilized, for solution. https://dailymed.nlm.nih.gov/dailymed/drugInfo.cfm?setid=ff676355-313d-4575-8f2f-e4a1e9527477

DailyMed. (Updated December 2, 2009). Neupogen–filgrastim injection, solution. https://dailymed.nlm.nih.gov/dailymed/drugInfo.cfm?setid=3bc802bd-76b4-4f45-8571-a436ec26228e

DailyMed. (Updated March 4, 2021). Neulasta–pegfilgrastim kit. https://dailymed.nlm.nih.gov/dailymed/drugInfo.cfm?setid=fdfe5d72-6b80-435a-afa4-c5d74dd852ce

DailyMed. (Updated February 15, 2023). Opdivo–nivolumab injection. https://dailymed.nlm.nih.gov/dailymed/drugInfo.cfm?setid=f570b9c4-6846-4de2-abfa-4d0a4ae4e394

DailyMed. (Updated July 12, 2022). Oxaliplatin injection, powder, lyophilized, for solution. https://dailymed.nlm.nih.gov/dailymed/drugInfo.cfm?setid=78f6a5f3-d088-4aee-9743-fa8cf19d3d75

DailyMed. (Updated January 31, 2023). Pacl*taxel injection. https://www.dailymed.nlm.nih.gov/dailymed/drugInfo.cfm?setid=6d04b514-c85c-4db1-919e-21dd98172791

DailyMed. (Updated September 30, 2022). Pemetrexed disodium injection, powder, lyophilized, for solution. https://dailymed.nlm.nih.gov/dailymed/drugInfo.cfm?setid=1d8bcf03-e055-a274-7844-ae9a523e3c4c

DailyMed. (Updated June 6, 2023). Rituxan–rituximab injection, solution. https://dailymed.nlm.nih.gov/dailymed/drugInfo.cfm?setid=b172773b-3905-4a1c-ad95-bab4b6126563

DailyMed. (Updated August 3, 2022). Tabloid–thioguanine tablet. https://dailymed.nlm.nih.gov/dailymed/drugInfo.cfm?setid=4490128b-e73f-4849-9d6e-e8591639d771

DailyMed. (Updated March 21, 2022). Tamoxifen citrate tablet. https://dailymed.nlm.nih.gov/dailymed/drugInfo.cfm?setid=9b8a4211-120f-4981-ad69-928accb97637

DailyMed. (Updated December 12, 2018). Tarceva–erlotinib hydrochloride tablet. https://dailymed.nlm.nih.gov/dailymed/drugInfo.cfm?setid=57bccb29-1c47-4c64-ab6a-77960a91cc20

DailyMed. (Updated December 31, 2019). Vinblastine sulfate injection. https://dailymed.nlm.nih.gov/dailymed/drugInfo.cfm?setid=f073b58e-56d6-4c8d-a2ce-b37719402d77

DailyMed. (Updated February 1, 2023). Vincristine sulfate injection, solution. https://www.dailymed.nlm.nih.gov/dailymed/drugInfo.cfm?setid=b22e4c8e-dbe1-4d4b-a026-e1812974071c

Mbemi, A., Khanna, S., Njiki, S., Yedjou, C. G., & Tchounwou, P. B. (2020). Impact of gene–environment interactions on cancer development.International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health,17(21), 8089. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph17218089

National Cancer Institute. (n.d.).Cancer classification | SEER training modules. https://training.seer.cancer.gov/disease/war/

National Cancer Institute. (2019).Cancer disparities. Cancer.gov. https://www.cancer.gov/about-cancer/understanding/disparities.

National Cancer Institute. (2023). SEER training modules. https://training.seer.cancer.gov

Oncology Nursing Society. (2023). ASCO/ONS chemotherapy administration safety standards. https://www.ons.org/ascoons-chemotherapy-administration-safety-standards

Chapter 9 Introduction to the Nervous System

Alhayek, S., & Preuss, C. V. (2023) Beta 1 receptors. StatPearls. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/books/NBK532904/

Carlson, A. B., & Kraus, G. P. (2023). Physiology, cholinergic receptors. StatPearls. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/books/NBK526134/

Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC). (2023). National neurological conditions surveillance system (NNCSS). https://www.cdc.gov/surveillance/neurology/index.html

Chen I., & Lui, F. (2023). Neuroanatomy, neuron action potential. StatPearls. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/books/NBK546639/

Clar, D. T., & Sharma, S. (2023). Autonomic pharmacology. StatPearls. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/books/NBK538180/

Farzam, K., Faizy, R. M., & Saadabadi, A. (2023). Stimulants. StatPearls. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/books/NBK539896/

Farzam, K., Kidron, A., & Lakhkar, A. D. (2023). Adrenergic drugs. StatPearls. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/books/NBK534230/

National Institute of Neurological Disorders and Stroke. (2023). Brain basics: know your brain. https://www.ninds.nih.gov/health-information/public-education/brain-basics/brain-basics-know-your-brain

Office of Disease Prevention and Health Promotion. (2021). Browse objectives. Healthy People 2030. https://health.gov/healthypeople/objectives-and-data/browse-objectives

Pan American Health Organization [PAHO]. (2021). Burden of neurological conditions. https://www.paho.org/en/enlace/burden-neurological-conditions

Patel, N. M., & Dewaswala, N. (2023). Parasympathomimetic medications. StatPearls. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/books/NBK554534/

Sam, C., & Bordoni, B. (2023). Physiology, acetylcholine. StatPearls. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/books/NBK557825/

Sargsyan, A. (2020). Essential notes on pathophysiology for advanced practice nurses. East Tennessee State University. https://dc.etsu.edu/etsu-oer/3

Shahrokhi, M., & Asuncion, R. M. D. (2023). Neurologic exam. StatPearls. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/books/NBK557589/

Sheffler, Z. M., Reddy, V., & Pillarisetty, L. S. (2023). Physiology, neurotransmitters. StatPearls. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/books/NBK539894/

U.S. Department of Health and Human Services. (2023). National neurological conditions surveillance system (NNCSS). https://www.cdc.gov/surveillance/neurology/index.html

Waxenbaum, J. A., Reddy, V., & Varacallo, M. (2023). Anatomy, autonomic nervous system. StatPearls. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/books/NBK539845/

Chapter 10 Drugs to Treat Myasthenia Gravis and Alzheimer’s Disease

Adeyinka, A., & Kondamudi, N. P. (2023). Cholinergic crisis. StatPearls. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/books/NBK482433/

Alzheimer’s Association. (2019). Alzheimer’s disease facts and figures. Alzheimer’s and Dementia, 15(3), 321–387.

Bekdash, R. A. (2021). The cholinergic system, the adrenergic system and the neuropathology of Alzheimer’s disease. International Journal of Molecular Sciences, 22(3). https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms22031273

DailyMed. (Updated February 17, 2023). Adlarity – donepezil hydrochloride patch. https://dailymed.nlm.nih.gov/dailymed/drugInfo.cfm?setid=1cb44c65-00e8-4b5c-99c2-ad15173115a0

DailyMed. (Updated December 21, 2022). Azathioprine tablet. https://dailymed.nlm.nih.gov/dailymed/drugInfo.cfm?setid=59f3219f-898f-4d05-a430-c2b3f5255af1

DailyMed. (Updated December 11, 2023). Donepezil hydrochloride tablet. https://dailymed.nlm.nih.gov/dailymed/drugInfo.cfm?setid=297e86e8-d248-4cc9-9d9c-2ef9efb4414d

DailyMed. (November 1, 2022). Galantamine capsule, extended release. https://dailymed.nlm.nih.gov/dailymed/drugInfo.cfm?setid=d0b75970-8d3d-408b-9e17-9cbad0f776b1

DailyMed. (Updated August 10, 2023). Memantine hydrochloride capsule, extended release. https://dailymed.nlm.nih.gov/dailymed/drugInfo.cfm?setid=f2b7538d-8ca1-4ac7-a172-d268e2fa9a52

DailyMed. (Updated January 22, 2019). Namzaric – memantine hydrochloride and donepezil hydrochloride capsule. https://dailymed.nlm.nih.gov/dailymed/drugInfo.cfm?setid=90fedc32-19e5-480c-afc6-f35a5cf4b9aa

DailyMed. (Updated July 27, 2022). Neostigmine methylsulfate injection. https://dailymed.nlm.nih.gov/dailymed/drugInfo.cfm?setid=856c3775-8925-4bd5-a93d-604829e73440

DailyMed. (Updated March 11, 2019). Pyridostigmine-pyridostigmine bromide oral solution. https://dailymed.nlm.nih.gov/dailymed/drugInfo.cfm?setid=ef78ff05-8e0f-463a-88cd-ca9a01aed76a

DailyMed. (Updated March 21, 2022). Rivastigmine tartrate capsule. https://dailymed.nlm.nih.gov/dailymed/drugInfo.cfm?setid=0044f1d7-613c-4611-8481-13032c8cb390

DailyMed. (Updated October 24, 2023). Rivastigmine transdermal system – rivastigmine patch, extended release. https://dailymed.nlm.nih.gov/dailymed/drugInfo.cfm?setid=9a250350-9e85-b152-e053-2a95a90ab97d

DailyMed. (Updated June 30, 2023). Rystiggo – rozanolixizumab injection, solution. https://dailymed.nlm.nih.gov/dailymed/drugInfo.cfm?setid=3c0eb8c2-c042-4954-b451-3baa77f5e6d1

Eisai. (2023). LEQEMBI. https://www.leqembi.com/support-and-resources#eisai-patient-support

Health Union. (2023). Myasthenic and cholinergic crisis: What you need to know. https://myasthenia-gravis.com/clinical/cholinergic-crisis

Huang, J. (2023). Alzheimer disease. Merck Manual—Professional version. https://www.merckmanuals.com/professional/neurologic-disorders/delirium-and-dementia/alzheimer-disease#v8417862

Institute for Safe Medication Practices. (2023). List of confused drug names. https://www.cdc.gov/std/health-disparities/default.htm

National Institute of Neurological Disorders and Stroke. (2023a). Alzheimer’s disease. National Institutes of Health. https://www.ninds.nih.gov/health-information/disorders/alzheimers-disease

National Institute of Neurological Disorders and Stroke. (2023b). Myasthenia gravis. National Institutes of Health. https://www.ninds.nih.gov/health-information/disorders/myasthenia-gravis

Chapter 11 Drugs to Treat Parkinson’s Disease and Multiple Sclerosis

American Geriatrics Society. (2023). American Geriatrics Society 2023 updated AGS Beers Criteria® for potentially inappropriate medication use in older adults. Journal of American Geriatrics Society. https://doi.org/10.1111/jgs.18372

American Parkinson Disease Association. (2014). The role of dopamine agonists in Parkinson’s treatment. https://www.apdaparkinson.org/article/the-role-of-dopamine-receptor-agonists-in-pd

Capriotti, T. (2020). Davis advantage for pathophysiology: Introductory concepts and clinical perspectives (2nd ed.). F. A. Davis.

Cleveland Clinic. (2023). Muscle relaxers. https://my.clevelandclinic.org/health/treatments/24686-muscle-relaxers

Costa, K. M., & Schoenbaum, G. (2022). Dopamine. Current Biology, 32(15), R817–R824. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.cub.2022.06.060

Cunha, J. P. (2023). Briumvi. RxList. https://www.rxlist.com/briumvi-drug.htm#description.

DailyMed. (Updated April 19, 2023). Amantadine capsule. https://dailymed.nlm.nih.gov/dailymed/drugInfo.cfm?setid=4157d9a7-a53f-4dde-b051-fe3e9a674913

DailyMed. (Updated February 24, 2022). Apomorphine hydrochloride-apomorphine hydrochloride injection. https://dailymed.nlm.nih.gov/dailymed/drugInfo.cfm?setid=aedf70e4-1949-44bc-bf1b-0f282c4f0705

DailyMed. (Updated July 31, 2023). Avonex-interferon beta-1a kit. https://dailymed.nlm.nih.gov/dailymed/drugInfo.cfm?setid=d70a39cc-de15-4c12-a1ec-8063b69ea0e1

DailyMed. (Updated January 15, 2023). Baclofen injection. https://dailymed.nlm.nih.gov/dailymed/drugInfo.cfm?setid=dfa6148c-693c-45f1-89be-0e77d39f313e

DailyMed. (Updated July 4, 2023). Baclofen tablet. https://dailymed.nlm.nih.gov/dailymed/drugInfo.cfm?setid=04dac0f6-cc6c-4959-9bca-a6e4a99690f3

DailyMed. (Updated January 25, 2023). Bafiertam – monomethyl fumarate capsule. https://dailymed.nlm.nih.gov/dailymed/drugInfo.cfm?setid=a161f9d4-70f1-4097-957a-eafb35d3274f

DailyMed. (Updated January 26, 2021). Benztropine mesylate tablet. https://dailymed.nlm.nih.gov/dailymed/drugInfo.cfm?setid=298f140d-b4e4-4cc6-a304-b32eaba3f0b0

DailyMed. (Updated July 28, 2023). Betaseron – interferon beta-1b kit. https://dailymed.nlm.nih.gov/dailymed/drugInfo.cfm?setid=66311f74-0472-4fa3-848a-06002ca0def5

DailyMed. (Updated October 13, 2021). Bromocriptine mesylate capsule. https://dailymed.nlm.nih.gov/dailymed/drugInfo.cfm?setid=72d8eefe-c066-41b6-8922-9586f1cf47a1

DailyMed. (Updated May 3, 2023). Campath – alemtuzumab injection. https://dailymed.nlm.nih.gov/dailymed/drugInfo.cfm?setid=4f5f7255-7abc-4328-bd1a-ceaf139ef3e0

DailyMed. (Updated November 23, 2023). Carbidopa and levodopa tablet, extended release. https://dailymed.nlm.nih.gov/dailymed/drugInfo.cfm?setid=5217a6ec-cc26-4acc-b2da-17f6545c3b60

DailyMed. (Updated October 26, 2018). Carbidopa and levodopa tablet, oral disintegrating. https://dailymed.nlm.nih.gov/dailymed/drugInfo.cfm?setid=48e0f2ec-b217-4c25-a71c-20e173d05edb

DailyMed. (Updated June 20, 2022). Dantrolene sodium, capsule. https://dailymed.nlm.nih.gov/dailymed/drugInfo.cfm?setid=90414d2f-7b2c-47f9-a096-2e7b7dd052de

DailyMed. (Updated March 4, 2022). DUOPA – carbidopa and levodopa suspension. https://dailymed.nlm.nih.gov/dailymed/drugInfo.cfm?setid=7066d371-dc6a-0d6f-7bed-e5dd4ee912da

DailyMed. (Updated May 15, 2020). Emsam-selegiline patch. https://dailymed.nlm.nih.gov/dailymed/drugInfo.cfm?setid=b891bd9f-fdb8-4862-89c5-ecdd700398a3

DailyMed. (Updated September 29, 2022). Entacapone, film-coated tablet. https://dailymed.nlm.nih.gov/dailymed/drugInfo.cfm?setid=e9e94e9f-cd7a-45f5-9aeb-9c28ed804d8c

DailyMed. (Updated August 19, 2023). Gabapentin capsule. https://dailymed.nlm.nih.gov/dailymed/drugInfo.cfm?setid=f2d9c3de-4749-4265-a26e-50026ab46ee4

DailyMed. (Updated March 23, 2023). Glatiramer acetate injection, solution. https://dailymed.nlm.nih.gov/dailymed/drugInfo.cfm?setid=f38b5606-d2d7-44ec-912f-46882aa2fa7b

DailyMed. (Updated January, 19, 2023). Inbrija – levodopa capsule. https://dailymed.nlm.nih.gov/dailymed/drugInfo.cfm?setid=a906f8e1-6e1c-480a-8276-c01bc65dd3be

DailyMed. (Updated May 23, 2023). Lemtrada, alemtuzumab injection, solution, concentrate. https://dailymed.nlm.nih.gov/dailymed/drugInfo.cfm?setid=6236b0bc-82e9-4447-9a78-f57d94770269

DailyMed. (Updated August 10, 2023). Mayzent – siponimod tablet, film-coated. https://dailymed.nlm.nih.gov/dailymed/drugInfo.cfm?setid=44492772-5aed-4627-bd85-e8e89f308bb3

DailyMed. (Updated July 27, 2022). Neupro – rotigotine patch, extended release. https://dailymed.nlm.nih.gov/dailymed/drugInfo.cfm?setid=939e28c5-f3a9-42c0-9a2d-8d471d82a6e0

DailyMed. (Updated December 21, 2022). Nuplazid – pimavanserin tartrate capsule. https://dailymed.nlm.nih.gov/dailymed/drugInfo.cfm?setid=1e6bea44-57d6-4bac-9328-46e1ee59f83b

DailyMed. (Updated August 28, 2023). Ocrevus – ocrelizuman injection. https://dailymed.nlm.nih.gov/dailymed/drugInfo.cfm?setid=9da42362-3bb5-4b83-b4bb-b59fd4e55f0d

DailyMed. (Updated December 29, 2021). Pramipexole dihdrochloride extended-release-pramipexole dihydrochloride tablet, extended release. https://dailymed.nlm.nih.gov/dailymed/drugInfo.cfm?setid=d07aad1b-e078-4fca-8386-ca2e8e899688

DailyMed. (Updated March 7, 2023). Pramipexole dihydrochloride tablet. https://dailymed.nlm.nih.gov/dailymed/drugInfo.cfm?setid=4fe7106d-4bf6-4794-87cb-8df616994c41

DailyMed. (Updated August 29, 2021). Pregabalin capsule. https://dailymed.nlm.nih.gov/dailymed/drugInfo.cfm?setid=f0a41ead-e56a-4338-91f0-b084b938ee80

DailyMed. (Updated September 19, 2022). Pregabalin extended release – pregabalin tablet, film coated, extended release. https://dailymed.nlm.nih.gov/dailymed/drugInfo.cfm?setid=1544a657-353c-47f8-96ac-a63fa78373f0

DailyMed. (Updated April 8, 2022). Rasagiline mesylate tablet. https://dailymed.nlm.nih.gov/dailymed/drugInfo.cfm?setid=212ec349-2fbb-43dc-9dd1-745efddb52fa

DailyMed. (Updated March 22, 2018). Ropinirole hydrochloride tablet, film coated, extended release. https://dailymed.nlm.nih.gov/dailymed/drugInfo.cfm?setid=6c24b96c-7d8d-494a-b7cd-49fe6138a66d

DailyMed. (Updated August 10, 2021). Ropinirole hydrochloride tablet, film-coated. https://dailymed.nlm.nih.gov/dailymed/drugInfo.cfm?setid=6d1a0f9f-5fa0-43fa-83b9-0d18a129fd0c

DailyMed. (Updated June 1, 2022). Sinemet – carbidopa and levodopa tablet. https://dailymed.nlm.nih.gov/dailymed/drugInfo.cfm?setid=9b17b028-964a-473c-823d-81423535bd66

DailyMed. (Updated July 30, 2021). Stalevo – carbidopa, levodopa, and entacapone tablet, film coated. https://dailymed.nlm.nih.gov/dailymed/drugInfo.cfm?setid=53c488d8-4146-7563-8021-d90c931d1a95

DailyMed. (Updated October 2, 2020). Tasmar – tolcapone tablet, film-coated. https://dailymed.nlm.nih.gov/dailymed/drugInfo.cfm?setid=a0e47a9d-78e7-4523-983a-aa259f221736

DailyMed. (Updated November 8, 2023). Teriflunomide tablet, coated. https://dailymed.nlm.nih.gov/dailymed/drugInfo.cfm?setid=8e6d1915-686c-4a57-af8a-c5ba61746821

DailyMed. (Updated January 28, 2019). Trihexyphenidyl hydrochloride tablet. https://dailymed.nlm.nih.gov/dailymed/drugInfo.cfm?setid=83608c13-509d-448b-8559-5f5e8a9a0d75

DailyMed. (Updated October 27, 2023). Tysabri – natalizumab injection https://dailymed.nlm.nih.gov/dailymed/drugInfo.cfm?setid=c5fdde91-1989-4dd2-9129-4f3323ea2962

DailyMed. (Updated December 20, 2023). Xadago – safinamide mesylate tablet, film-coated. https://dailymed.nlm.nih.gov/dailymed/drugInfo.cfm?setid=c4d65f28-983f-42b4-bb23-023ae0fe81b2

Institute for Safe Medication Practices. (2023). List of confused drug names. https://www.cdc.gov/std/health-disparities/default.htm

Kwon, D. K., Kwatra, M., Wang, J., & Ko, H. S. (2022). Levodopa-induced dyskinesia in Parkinson's disease: Pathogenesis and emerging treatment strategies. Cells, 11(23), 3736. https://doi.org/10.3390/cells11233736

Mayo Clinic. (2023). Parkinson’s disease. https://www.mayoclinic.org/diseases-conditions/parkinsons-disease/symptoms-causes/syc-20376055?

Moreo, N., & Benbadis, S. (2019). Seizures and multiple sclerosis. Epilepsy Foundation. https://www.epilepsy.com/causes/structural/seizures-and-multiple-sclerosis#What-Types-Of-Seizures-Typically-Occur-In-MS?

Multiple Sclerosis Foundation. (2018). Common questions. https://msfocus.org/Get-Educated/Common-Questions#What%20is%20Multiple%20Sclerosis

National Institute of Neurological Disorders and Stroke. (2023a). Multiple sclerosis. National Institutes of Health. https://www.ninds.nih.gov/health-information/disorders/multiple-sclerosis?search-erm=multiple%20scleros

National Institute of Neurological Disorders and Stroke. (2023b). Parkinson’s disease. National Institutes of Health. https://www.ninds.nih.gov/health-information/disorders/parkinsons-disease

National Multiple Sclerosis Society. (2023). MS prevalence. https://www.nationalmssociety.org/About-the-Society/MS-Prevalence

Ovallath, S., & Sulthana, B. (2017). Levodopa: History and therapeutic applications. Annals of Indian Academy of Neurology, 20(3), 185–189. https://doi.org/10.4103/aian.AIAN_241_17

Parkinson’s Foundation. (2023a). Anticholinergic drugs. https://www.parkinson.org/living-with-parkinsons/treatment/prescription-medications/anticholinergic-drugs

Parkinson’s Foundation. (2023b). Frequently asked questions: For veterans with Parkinson’s disease and their care partners. https://www.parkinson.org/sites/default/files/documents/parkinsons-foundation-veterans-faq.pdf

Parkinson’s Foundation. (2023c). Levodopa. https://www.parkinson.org/living-with-parkinsons/treatment/prescription-medications/levodopa

Parkinson’s Foundation. (2023d). Statistics. https://www.parkinson.org/understanding-parkinsons/statistics

Parkinson’s Foundation. (2023e). What is Parkinson’s? https://www.parkinson.org/understanding-parkinsons/what-is-parkinsons

Roy, R., Alotaibi, A. A., & Freedman, M. S. (2021). Sphingosine 1-phosphate receptor modulators for multiple sclerosis. National Library of Medicine. https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/33797705/

Chapter 12 Anticonvulsant Drugs and Drugs to Treat Epilepsy, Migraine Headaches, and Intracranial Emergencies

American Migraine Foundation. (2023). https://americanmigrainefoundation.org/resource-library/what-is-migraine/

Aslam, S., & Gupta, V. (2022). Carbonic anhydrase inhibitors. StatPearls. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/books/NBK557736/

Berger, A. A., Winnick, A., Popovsky, D., Kaneb, A., Berardino, K., Kaye, A. M., Cornett, E. M., Kaye, A. D., Viswanath, O., & Urits, I. (2020). Lasmiditan for the treatment of migraines with or without aura in adults. Psychopharmacology Bulletin, 50(4 Suppl 1), 163–188. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7901123/

Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. (2020a). Epilepsy fast facts. https://www.cdc.gov/epilepsy/about/fast-facts.htm

Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. (2020b). Frequently asked questions about epilepsy. https://www.cdc.gov/epilepsy/about/faq.htm

Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. (2020c). Types of seizures. https://www.cdc.gov/epilepsy/about/types-of-seizures.htm

Cook, J. (2016). Some common neurological emergencies. In Slardini, A. & Biller, J. (Eds.), The hospital neurology book (pp. 1-24). McGraw Hill. https://neurology.mhmedical.com/content.aspx?bookid=1779

DailyMed. (Updated February 27, 2023). Acetazolamide capsule. https://dailymed.nlm.nih.gov/dailymed/drugInfo.cfm?setid=9a368b35-cd51-47ad-83cc-ccc56c4585e8

DailyMed. (Updated May 15, 2023). Carbamazepine capsule, extended release. https://dailymed.nlm.nih.gov/dailymed/drugInfo.cfm?setid=7a1e523a-b377-43dc-b231-7591c4c888ea

DailyMed. (Updated December 1, 2023). Carbamazepine tablet. https://dailymed.nlm.nih.gov/dailymed/drugInfo.cfm?setid=bf0d012f-da14-8ce3-d74f-56172cddebc5

DailyMed. (Updated June 3, 2023). Clonazepam tablet. https://dailymed.nlm.nih.gov/dailymed/drugInfo.cfm?setid=ebc11109-e7bf-452d-b675-4b3236d54164

DailyMed. (Updated November 2, 2023). Clorazepate dipotassium tablet. https://dailymed.nlm.nih.gov/dailymed/drugInfo.cfm?setid=a4b80e69-b7c7-471a-8ce8-4e992808c669

DailyMed. (Updated April 4, 2023). Diazepam tablet. https://dailymed.nlm.nih.gov/dailymed/drugInfo.cfm?setid=c397a9da-862f-4f3f-8109-7d21691de53a

DailyMed. (Updated April 7, 2023). Diazepam injection. https://dailymed.nlm.nih.gov/dailymed/drugInfo.cfm?setid=f466f8a3-f31c-44f4-b0e8-444464f20f66

DailyMed. (Updated November 22, 2021). Eletriptan hydrobromide tablet, film coated. https://dailymed.nlm.nih.gov/dailymed/drugInfo.cfm?setid=a65315d7-a30a-4c1f-95a9-30226e559c3d

DailyMed. (Updated October 25, 2022). Ergomar sublingual-ergotamine tartrate tablet. https://dailymed.nlm.nih.gov/dailymed/drugInfo.cfm?setid=dac9637f-3326-4f25-b7b9-f9f54b738232

DailyMed. (Updated December 27, 2023). Ethosuximide capsule. https://dailymed.nlm.nih.gov/dailymed/drugInfo.cfm?setid=85c50760-98cc-4888-b27f-146937acc893

DailyMed. (Updated December 17, 2023). Gabapentin capsule. https://dailymed.nlm.nih.gov/dailymed/drugInfo.cfm?setid=7538e255-95df-4991-aae0-a90d709f1e95

DailyMed. (Updated August 25, 2023). Keppra-levetiracetam tablet, film coated. https://dailymed.nlm.nih.gov/dailymed/drugInfo.cfm?setid=3ca9df05-a506-4ec8-a4fe-320f1219ab21

DailyMed. (Updated December 7, 2022). Lacosamide-lacosamide tablet, film coated. https://dailymed.nlm.nih.gov/dailymed/drugInfo.cfm?setid=c5b91128-f838-4e98-9684-5f477fc7af06

DailyMed. (Updated March 6, 2023). Lamotrigine tablet. https://dailymed.nlm.nih.gov/dailymed/drugInfo.cfm?setid=4ca9d713-ab63-48bf-9386-29301a842e60

DailyMed. (Updated April 30, 2021). Lamotrigene extended release tablet. https://dailymed.nlm.nih.gov/dailymed/drugInfo.cfm?setid=fb59c76a-9b6f-40ea-ac3a-58c3195c4377

DailyMed. (Updated September 12, 2022). Lorazepam injection. https://dailymed.nlm.nih.gov/dailymed/drugInfo.cfm?setid=b5b17cde-a94c-4105-871c-54e7d2bd47e8

DailyMed. (Updated December 30, 2022). Lorazepam tablet. https://dailymed.nlm.nih.gov/dailymed/drugInfo.cfm?setid=4fae1607-69d7-47ce-9b78-7474af50036d

DailyMed. (Updated August 15, 2023). Mannitol injection, solution. https://dailymed.nlm.nih.gov/dailymed/drugInfo.cfm?setid=d12cc802-b538-4065-a264-f474ff3b3043

DailyMed. (Updated October 16, 2023). Phenobarbital elixir. https://dailymed.nlm.nih.gov/dailymed/drugInfo.cfm?setid=1e34926f-e5e5-41da-836a-c854b00d1a20

DailyMed. (Updated October 5, 2023). Phenobarbital sodium injection. https://dailymed.nlm.nih.gov/dailymed/drugInfo.cfm?setid=b42d35de-a07a-4db5-998d-d4dbb92342cf

DailyMed. (Updated September 14, 2022). Phenobarbital tablet. https://dailymed.nlm.nih.gov/dailymed/drugInfo.cfm?setid=fa83619c-81b9-4e69-b36e-46e396bb7286

DailyMed. (Updated January 21, 2020). Phenytoin sodium capsule. https://dailymed.nlm.nih.gov/dailymed/drugInfo.cfm?setid=df0bf42b-ce9a-42c3-8c24-46f1ea3bd214

DailyMed. (Updated September 15, 2022). Reyvow tablet. https://dailymed.nlm.nih.gov/dailymed/drugInfo.cfm?setid=aea3358c-ff41-4490-9e6d-c7bf7b3de13f

DailyMed. (Updated April 20, 2023). NURTEC ODT-rimegepant sulfate tablet, orally disintegrating. https://dailymed.nlm.nih.gov/dailymed/drugInfo.cfm?setid=9ef08e09-1098-35cc-e053-2a95a90a3e1d

DailyMed. (Updated August 2, 2022). Rizatriptan benzoate-rizatriptan benzoate tablet. https://dailymed.nlm.nih.gov/dailymed/drugInfo.cfm?setid=53e7e016-1175-45af-a6b7-d44e3d0f92e4

DailyMed. (Updated October 6, 2021). Sumatriptan injection. https://dailymed.nlm.nih.gov/dailymed/drugInfo.cfm?setid=d13df081-648c-44c0-9854-5a1bfe23ae89

DailyMed. (Updated December 10, 2020). Sumatriptan succinate-sumatriptan succinate tablet. https://dailymed.nlm.nih.gov/dailymed/drugInfo.cfm?setid=ac80d018-6abf-2e41-ddea-90b4ff9e9013

DailyMed. (Updated September 1, 2023). Topiramate capsule, coated pellets. https://dailymed.nlm.nih.gov/dailymed/drugInfo.cfm?setid=1f5f940c-d5b9-4d09-958d-246931e167af

DailyMed. (Updated June 2, 2022). Valproic acid capsule. https://dailymed.nlm.nih.gov/dailymed/drugInfo.cfm?setid=dcce9cbd-ab6d-4ddf-b638-74e336ebc3d8

DailyMed. (Updated November 22, 2021). Zolmitriptan tablet, film coated. https://dailymed.nlm.nih.gov/dailymed/drugInfo.cfm?setid=b5c5cb44-7581-4856-8324-13c02a6101dd

DailyMed. (Updated October 6, 2023). Zonisamide capsule. https://dailymed.nlm.nih.gov/dailymed/drugInfo.cfm?setid=ab0631ca-5339-4570-bc27-f1dd92de1d6f

Faraj, C. A., Snyder, R. I., & McCutcheon, I. E. (2022). Intracranial emergencies in neurosurgical oncology: Pathophysiology and clinical management. Emergency Cancer Care 1(13). https://doi.org/10.1186/s44201-022-00013-6

Farzam, K., & Abdullah, M. (2022). Acetazolamide. StatPearls. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih/books/NBK532282/

Ghiasi, N., Bhansali, R. K., & Marwaha, R. (2023). Lorazepam. StatPearls. https://www.ncbi.nl.nih.gov/books/NBK532890/

Gupta, M., & Tripp, J. (2022). Phenytoin. StatPearls. https://www/ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/books/NBK55120

Hanrahan, B., & Carson, R. P. (2022). Ethosuximide. StatPearls. https://www.ncbi/nlm.nih.gov/books/NBK544244

Jahan, A. R., & Burgess, D. M. (2022). Substance use disorder. StatPearls. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/books/NBK570642

Magheru, C., Magheru, S., Coltau, M., Hoza, A., Moldovan, C., Sachelarie, L., Gradinaru, I., Hurjui, L. L., Marc, F., & Farcas, D. M. (2022). Antiepileptic drugs and their dual mechanism of action on carbonic anhydrase. Journal of Clinical Medicine, 11(9), 2614. https://doi.org/10.3390/jcm11092614

Munakomi, S., & Das, J. M. (2023). Intracranial pressure monitoring. StatPearls. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/books/NBK482119/

National Institute of Neurological Disorders and Stroke. (2023). Migraine. https://www.ninds.nih.gov/health-information/disorders/migraine

Nicholas, S., & Nicholas, D. (2023). Triptans. StatPearls. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/books/NBK554507/

Pinto, V. L., Tadi, P., & Adeyinka, A. (2002). Increased intracranial pressure. StatPearls. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/books/NBK482119/

Rahman, M., & Nguyen, H. (2022). Valproic acid. StatPearls. https://www.ncbi/nlm/nih.gov/books/NBK559112/

Rashid, A., & Manghi, A. (2022). Calcitonin gene related peptide receptor. StatPearls. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/books/NBK560648/

Sharma, S., Hasmi, M., & Kumar, A. (2023). Intracranial hypertension. StatPearls. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/books/NBK507811/

Skibiski, J., & Abdijadid, S. (2022). Barbiturates. StatPearls. https://www.ncbi/nlm.nih.gov/books/NBK539731/

Tenny, S., Patel, R., & Thorell, W. (2022). Mannitol. StatPearls. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/books/NBL470392/

Chapter 13 Psychopharmacologic Drugs

Ameer, M., & Saadabadi, A. (2023). Neuroleptic medications. StatPearls. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/books/NBK459150/

American Geriatrics Society. (2023). American Geriatrics Society 2023 updated AGS Beers criteria® for potentially inappropriate medication use in older adults. Journal of American Geriatrics Society, 71, 1–30. https://doi.org/10.1111/jgs.18372

American Psychiatric Association. (2022). Diagnostic and statistical manual of mental disorders (5th ed., text rev.). (DSM-5-TR). American Psychiatric Association.

Betchel, N., Fariba, K., & Saadabadi, A. (2023). Lamotrigine. StatPearls. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/books/NBK470442/

Chu, A., & Wadhwa, R. (2023). Selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors. StatPearls. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/books/NBK554406/

Correll, C., & Schooler, N. (2020). Negative symptoms in schizophrenia: A review and clinical guide for recognition, assessment, and treatment.Neuropsychiatric Disease and Treatment,16, 519–534. https://doi.org/10.2147/NDT.S225643

Coryell, W. (2022). Drug treatment of bipolar disorders. Merck Manual Professional Version. https://www.merckmanuals.com/professional/psychiatric-disorders/mood-disorders/drug-treatment-of-bipolar-disorders

DailyMed. (Updated May 30, 2023). Adderall – dextroamphetamine saccharate, amphetamine aspartate, dextroamphetamine sulfate, and amphetamine sulfate tablet. https://dailymed.nlm.nih.gov/dailymed/drugInfo.cfm?setid=f22635fe-821d-4cde-aa12-419f8b53db81

DailyMed. (Updated October 25, 2023). Adderall XR – dextroamphetamine sulfate, dextroamphetamine saccharate, amphetamine sulfate and amphetamine aspartate capsule, extended release. https://dailymed.nlm.nih.gov/dailymed/drugInfo.cfm?setid=aff45863-ffe1-4d4f-8acf-c7081512a6c0

DailyMed. (Updated February 2, 2023). Alprazolam extended release-alprazolam tablet, extended release. https://dailymed.nlm.nih.gov/dailymed/drugInfo.cfm?setid=a64496be-bf43-4ba9-a4b1-bd632965c1a0

DailyMed. (Updated January 10, 2023). Alprazolam, tablet. https://dailymed.nlm.nih.gov/dailymed/drugInfo.cfm?setid=a23063c0-099a-4256-b95f-3a857bbf704b

DailyMed. (Updated March 22, 2023). Amitriptyline hydrochloride, film coated. https://dailymed.nlm.nih.gov/dailymed/drugInfo.cfm?setid=f780d3c0-1247-5ad2-e053-6394a90a4454

DailyMed. (Updated May 17, 2023). Aripiprazole, tablet. https://dailymed.nlm.nih.gov/dailymed/drugInfo.cfm?setid=2d8d574b-fbf4-4d2c-a37c-25556ecbf1aa

DailyMed. (Updated May 10, 2023). Atomoxetine capsule. https://dailymed.nlm.nih.gov/dailymed/drugInfo.cfm?setid=6f6bea0c-297b-43ff-8960-ecc11243e06e

DailyMed. (Updated October 18, 2023). Azstarys – serdexmethylphenidate and dexmethylphenidate capsule. https://dailymed.nlm.nih.gov/dailymed/drugInfo.cfm?setid=00b5e716-5564-4bbd-acaf-df2bc45a5663

DailyMed. (Updated February 28, 2023). Belsomra – suvorexant tablet, film coated. https://dailymed.nlm.nih.gov/dailymed/drugInfo.cfm?setid=e5b72731-1acb-45b7-9c13-290ad12d3951

DailyMed. (Updated March 30, 2023). Bupropion HCL tablet, film coated. https://dailymed.nlm.nih.gov/dailymed/drugInfo.cfm?setid=f820ad7d-3c88-4a4f-e053-6294a90aef7b

DailyMed. (Updated December 7, 2023). Bupropion hydrochloride SR-bupropion hydrochloride tablet, extended release. https://dailymed.nlm.nih.gov/dailymed/drugInfo.cfm?setid=f8ad76a2-9f75-4660-973d-34402f314e9c

DailyMed. (Updated October 19, 2023). Carbamazepine tablet, extended release. https://dailymed.nlm.nih.gov/dailymed/drugInfo.cfm?setid=282c954f-e34a-4bd5-b5eb-771e3c56936f

DailyMed. (Updated December 29, 2023). Chlorpromazine hydrochloride, film coated. https://dailymed.nlm.nih.gov/dailymed/drugInfo.cfm?setid=aa086a21-de85-4b03-af58-49b70acf8cf0

DailyMed. (Updated August 24, 2023). Citalopram capsule. https://dailymed.nlm.nih.gov/dailymed/drugInfo.cfm?setid=2f815b0c-6da7-cb61-e89c-7de628092d0d

DailyMed. (Updated February 2, 2023). Clonazepam tablet. https://dailymed.nlm.nih.gov/dailymed/drugInfo.cfm?setid=b1582eb7-af35-45d5-a52e-0e380d08527d

DailyMed. (Updated July 15, 2023). Clozapine tablet. https://dailymed.nlm.nih.gov/dailymed/drugInfo.cfm?setid=883b5d43-0339-7dc1-f775-93791fb9b978

DailyMed. (Updated December 1, 2023). Dayvigo-lemborexant tablet, film coated. https://dailymed.nlm.nih.gov/dailymed/drugInfo.cfm?setid=7074cb65-77b3-45d2-8e8d-da8dc0f70bfd

DailyMed. (Updated November 16, 2022). Desipramine HCL tablet. https://dailymed.nlm.nih.gov/dailymed/drugInfo.cfm?setid=ed9d2290-9ad9-ecff-e053-2a95a90a5fd6

DailyMed. (Updated December 10, 2021). Dexmethylphenidate hydrochloride capsule, extended-release. https://dailymed.nlm.nih.gov/dailymed/drugInfo.cfm?setid=7b7e5069-6c58-4093-bb19-37d52fe67fd6

DailyMed. (Updated August 19, 2022). Dexmethylphenidate hydrochloride tablet. https://dailymed.nlm.nih.gov/dailymed/drugInfo.cfm?setid=830df993-db01-40df-beef-90af6b86f561

DailyMed. (Updated April 7, 2023). Diazepam injection. https://dailymed.nlm.nih.gov/dailymed/drugInfo.cfm?setid=f466f8a3-f31c-44f4-b0e8-444464f20f66

DailyMed. (Updated July 6, 2023). Diazepam tablet. https://dailymed.nlm.nih.gov/dailymed/drugInfo.cfm?setid=75661b9e-576a-4bde-aecd-587fdfdf1c28

DailyMed. (Updated July 20, 2023). Doxepin HCL capsule. https://dailymed.nlm.nih.gov/dailymed/drugInfo.cfm?setid=eb643108-7ae2-f476-e053-2995a90ab148

DailyMed. (Updated September 20, 2023). Duloxetine hydrochloride capsule, delayed release. https://dailymed.nlm.nih.gov/dailymed/drugInfo.cfm?setid=177ce798-3924-416b-ba37-23dfa911a43b

DailyMed. (Updated November 8, 2023). Escitalopram oxalate tablet, film-coated. https://dailymed.nlm.nih.gov/dailymed/drugInfo.cfm?setid=8704d062-fa91-4224-9dec-41664d20ee6b

DailyMed. (Updated October 24, 2022). Eszopiclone tablet, film-coated. https://dailymed.nlm.nih.gov/dailymed/drugInfo.cfm?setid=5469cc59-78f9-447a-9c33-12553bb4073d

DailyMed. (Updated August 24, 2023). Fluoxetine HCL tablet, film-coated. https://dailymed.nlm.nih.gov/dailymed/drugInfo.cfm?setid=b47b291f-3340-0c2a-3585-0926b9c1a71f

DailyMed. (Updated August 1, 2023). Fluoxetine hydrochloride capsule, delayed release pellets. https://dailymed.nlm.nih.gov/dailymed/drugInfo.cfm?setid=887fc670-db67-4cfe-967b-46b38375dae5

DailyMed. (Updated August 19, 2023). Fluphenazine hydrochloride tablet. https://dailymed.nlm.nih.gov/dailymed/drugInfo.cfm?setid=e73764e7-e666-4ad3-a029-04a528dc1c9e

DailyMed. (Updated December 1, 2023). Guanfacine tablet extended-release. https://dailymed.nlm.nih.gov/dailymed/drugInfo.cfm?setid=1c492e87-3406-ddb8-aaf2-e609c2ded503

DailyMed. (Updated September 11, 2023). Haloperidol decanoate injection. https://dailymed.nlm.nih.gov/dailymed/drugInfo.cfm?setid=f2d14406-2ad4-4c5b-9c24-a026f27b415d

DailyMed (Updated November 16, 2023). Haloperidol lactate injection. https://dailymed.nlm.nih.gov/dailymed/drugInfo.cfm?setid=8397a841-f240-4767-9dcd-781e6d3f7c7f

DailyMed. (Updated September 20, 2023). Haloperidol, tablet. https://dailymed.nlm.nih.gov/dailymed/drugInfo.cfm?setid=3a474e06-fb00-40cb-aa3a-6edad43c2c0a

DailyMed. (Updated November 2, 2022). Kapvay – Clonidine hydrochloride tablet, extended release. https://dailymed.nlm.nih.gov/dailymed/drugInfo.cfm?setid=aa7700e2-ae5d-44c4-a609-76de19c705a7

DailyMed. (Updated March 6, 2023). Lamotrigine tablet. https://dailymed.nlm.nih.gov/dailymed/drugInfo.cfm?setid=4ca9d713-ab63-48bf-9386-29301a842e60

DailyMed. (Updated July 21, 2023). Latuda-lurasidone hydrochloride tablet, film coated. https://dailymed.nlm.nih.gov/dailymed/drugInfo.cfm?setid=afad3051-9df2-4c54-9684-e8262a133af8

DailyMed. (Updated November 16, 2023). Levomilnacipran capsule, extended release. https://dailymed.nlm.nih.gov/dailymed/drugInfo.cfm?setid=bcbc5d92-e022-4a0d-ab4d-2b0d7aa68c58

DailyMed. (Updated January 27, 2023). Lithium carbonate capsule. https://dailymed.nlm.nih.gov/dailymed/drugInfo.cfm?setid=d1800f34-3d67-4b2f-874e-8639b125d853

DailyMed. (Updated February 14, 2020). Lithium carbonate tablet, extended release. https://dailymed.nlm.nih.gov/dailymed/drugInfo.cfm?setid=a1e2f942-2bc0-4afd-91ad-6c4cab38c8f0

DailyMed. (Updated September 12, 2022). Lorazepam injection. https://dailymed.nlm.nih.gov/dailymed/drugInfo.cfm?setid=b5b17cde-a94c-4105-871c-54e7d2bd47e8

DailyMed. (Updated December 20, 2022). Lorazepam tablet. https://dailymed.nlm.nih.gov/dailymed/drugInfo.cfm?setid=4fae1607-69d7-47ce-9b78-7474af50036d

DailyMed. (Updated June 7, 2023). Lumryz – sodium oxybate for suspension, extended release. https://dailymed.nlm.nih.gov/dailymed/drugInfo.cfm?setid=10e5e40c-52f3-4c73-8a34-2c29c690a934

DailyMed. (Updated July 17, 2023). Marplan – isocarboxazid tablet. https://dailymed.nlm.nih.gov/dailymed/drugInfo.cfm?setid=ac387aa0-3f04-4865-a913-db6ed6f4fdc5

DailyMed. (Updated July 5, 2023). Methamphetamine hydrochloride tablet. https://dailymed.nlm.nih.gov/dailymed/drugInfo.cfm?setid=f31f580f-1f08-4a0f-b078-0b9e3308f712

DailyMed. (Updated June 16, 2021). Methylphenidate capsule, extended-release. https://dailymed.nlm.nih.gov/dailymed/drugInfo.cfm?setid=1f8983ce-71b8-4c62-830d-e4692ddededa

DailyMed. (Updated May 3, 2023). Methylphenidate hydrochloride tablet. https://dailymed.nlm.nih.gov/dailymed/drugInfo.cfm?setid=4f3c91e6-4576-4326-bdab-7d8fb7c09bb8

DailyMed. (Updated November 13, 2023). Methylphenidate transdermal system – methylphenidate patch. https://dailymed.nlm.nih.gov/dailymed/drugInfo.cfm?setid=7bcff873-1fc2-45bc-a8e4-5db4edeb9bfb

DailyMed. (Updated December 1, 2022). Midazolam hydrochloride injection, solution. https://dailymed.nlm.nih.gov/dailymed/drugInfo.cfm?setid=7b42059c-16ad-4826-829b-83b42a39435b

DailyMed. (Updated November 30, 2022). Midazolam hydrochloride syrup. https://dailymed.nlm.nih.gov/dailymed/drugInfo.cfm?setid=a833c24b-6dca-44d7-a0d6-20012fa1ea77

DailyMed. (Updated May 2, 2023). Mirtazapine tablet, film coated. https://dailymed.nlm.nih.gov/dailymed/drugInfo.cfm?setid=9675333e-3064-c8cb-a4b4-6c74d9a82f17

DailyMed. (Updated July 21, 2023). Modafinil tablet. https://dailymed.nlm.nih.gov/dailymed/drugInfo.cfm?setid=63604fef-0b80-40ce-8dbf-3384f1aee395

DailyMed. (Updated December 9, 2020). Nardil – phenelzine sulfate tablet, film coated. https://dailymed.nlm.nih.gov/dailymed/drugInfo.cfm?setid=513a41d0-37d4-4355-8a6d-a2c643bce6fa

DailyMed. (Updated November 8, 2022). Olanzapine tablet. https://dailymed.nlm.nih.gov/dailymed/drugInfo.cfm?setid=636665be-9d7e-443a-8134-e8cc47e6ba24

DailyMed. (Updated September 20, 2023). Paliperidone tablet, extended release. https://dailymed.nlm.nih.gov/dailymed/drugInfo.cfm?setid=7b269778-803b-4ce2-a8c0-636fb131d16a

DailyMed. (Updated November 1, 2022). Paroxetine hydrochloride tablet, film coated. https://dailymed.nlm.nih.gov/dailymed/drugInfo.cfm?setid=25182b68-8f7a-48e8-9788-6818b0984b29

DailyMed. (Updated September 29, 2023). Paroxetine hydrochloride tablet, film coated, extended release. https://dailymed.nlm.nih.gov/dailymed/drugInfo.cfm?setid=087ff0d3-1761-47ea-a8c1-7c4cb679af97

DailyMed. (Updated December 20, 2023). Qelbree – Viloxazine hydrochloride capsule, extended release. https://dailymed.nlm.nih.gov/dailymed/drugInfo.cfm?setid=aedf408d-0f84-418d-9416-7c39ddb0d29a

DailyMed. (Updated November 2, 2023). Quetiapine fumarate, quetiapine tablet, film coated, extended release. https://dailymed.nlm.nih.gov/dailymed/drugInfo.cfm?setid=6562eb60-0d70-4909-bd07-88d5c9241516

DailyMed. (Updated November 2, 2023). Quviviq – daridorexant tablet, film coated. https://dailymed.nlm.nih.gov/dailymed/drugInfo.cfm?setid=3a2d1503-b816-40c9-9fac-7e03c5a3bcef

DailyMed. (Updated April 28, 2023). Ramelteon tablet, film coated. https://dailymed.nlm.nih.gov/dailymed/drugInfo.cfm?setid=3d0cc378-4bc5-425c-8f41-43eb734c24d9

DailyMed. (Updated July 27, 2023). Risperidone tablet. https://dailymed.nlm.nih.gov/dailymed/drugInfo.cfm?setid=43aa2a4f-1123-4f86-800b-9218882f7bcd

DailyMed. (Updated March 3, 2023). Selegiline hydrochloride capsule. https://dailymed.nlm.nih.gov/dailymed/drugInfo.cfm?setid=df88d6bf-0fda-3825-e053-2a95a90a3a75

DailyMed. (Updated July 21, 2017). Sertraline hydrochloride tablet. https://dailymed.nlm.nih.gov/dailymed/drugInfo.cfm?setid=aa1026ed-fcaa-4442-a3f8-b5e0b600b51f

DailyMed. (Updated October 20, 2021). Sunosi – solriamfetol tablet, film coated. https://dailymed.nlm.nih.gov/dailymed/drugInfo.cfm?setid=2f30ab12-20e1-4391-9359-24b23a21578d

DailyMed. (Updated February 28, 2023). Temazepam capsule. https://dailymed.nlm.nih.gov/dailymed/drugInfo.cfm?setid=a4370eb4-b00d-4247-af8d-980e59fbbec6

DailyMed. (Updated December 16, 2021). Thioridazine hydrochloride tablet, film coated. https://dailymed.nlm.nih.gov/dailymed/drugInfo.cfm?setid=52fea941-0b47-41c1-b00d-f88150e8ab93

DailyMed. (Updated March 31, 2023). Trazodone HCL tablet. https://dailymed.nlm.nih.gov/dailymed/drugInfo.cfm?setid=d27e4473-6f62-ddfe-e053-2a95a90a9a2c

DailyMed. (Updated January 16, 2023). Triazolam tablet. https://dailymed.nlm.nih.gov/dailymed/drugInfo.cfm?setid=db564864-17fc-4ba5-a438-a467ef57a0ca

DailyMed. (Updated April 3, 2023). Trintellix – vortioxetine tablet, film coated. https://dailymed.nlm.nih.gov/dailymed/drugInfo.cfm?setid=cb1e9df4-dd74-4073-9d78-bb55593dd000

DailyMed. (Updated March 30, 2023). Valproic acid capsule. https://dailymed.nlm.nih.gov/dailymed/drugInfo.cfm?setid=7d4df6ad-3d53-4664-9200-749487bf3689

DailyMed. (Updated September 1, 2023). Venlafaxine hydrochloride capsule, extended release. https://dailymed.nlm.nih.gov/dailymed/drugInfo.cfm?setid=85d3ce8b-8966-45d9-bdaf-f6f0475096e1

DailyMed. (Updated September 20, 2023). Vraylar – cariprazine capsule, gelatin coated. https://dailymed.nlm.nih.gov/dailymed/drugInfo.cfm?setid=3435ec73-86ed-46d1-bd1f-ee6c30209123

DailyMed. (Updated October 13, 2023). Vyvanse – lisdexamfetamine dimesylate, capsule and chewable. https://dailymed.nlm.nih.gov/dailymed/drugInfo.cfm?setid=704e4378-ca83-445c-8b45-3cfa51c1ecad

DailyMed. (Updated December 22, 2022). Wakix – pitolisant hydrochloride tablet, film coated. https://dailymed.nlm.nih.gov/dailymed/drugInfo.cfm?setid=8daa5562-824e-476c-9652-26ceef3d4b0e

DailyMed. (Updated October 27, 2023). Xelstrym – dextroamphetamine patch, extended release. https://dailymed.nlm.nih.gov/dailymed/drugInfo.cfm?setid=0862f02a-72a8-41cc-8845-57cf4974bb6f

DailyMed. (Updated January 13, 2022). Zaleplon, capsule. https://dailymed.nlm.nih.gov/dailymed/drugInfo.cfm?setid=47303145-6788-46bd-b9cc-37b59b145cea

DailyMed. (Updated December 22, 2022). Ziprasidone capsule. https://dailymed.nlm.nih.gov/dailymed/drugInfo.cfm?setid=8f78b278-a0b3-47ce-bbad-5dad7012896a

DailyMed. (Updated October 10, 2019). Zolpidem tartrate sublingual tablet. https://dailymed.nlm.nih.gov/dailymed/drugInfo.cfm?setid=44b34e58-114b-4774-9fab-4b188dfe0228

DailyMed. (Updated April 14, 2022). Zolpidem tartrate tablet, film coated. https://dailymed.nlm.nih.gov/dailymed/drugInfo.cfm?setid=ea2067bd-1622-4d98-8012-2c09405aa88d

DailyMed. (Updated March 2, 2019). Zolpidem tartrate tablet, film coated, extended release. https://dailymed.nlm.nih.gov/dailymed/drugInfo.cfm?setid=ebd6c66b-b230-48d7-b38f-d610b6cb2b6c

Edinoff, A. N., Raveendran, K., Colon, M. A., Thomas, B. H., Trettin, K. A., Hunt, G. W., Kaye, A. M., Cornett, E. M., & Kaye, A. D. (2022). Selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors and associated bleeding risks: A narrative and clinical review. Health Psychology Research, 10(4). doi:10.52965/001c.39580

Hedya, S., Avula, A., & Swoboda, H. (2023). Lithium toxicity. StatPearls. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/books/NBK499992/

Institute for Safe Medication Practices. (2023). List of confused drug names. https://www.ismp.org/recommendations/confused-drug-names-list

Lee, S. J., & Green, A. R. (2019). Ask the expert: Sedative-hypnotic drugs and related medications. Health in Aging. https://www.healthinaging.org/tools-and-tips/ask-expert-sedative-hypnotic-drugs-and-related-medications

Marazziti, D., Mucci, F., Avella, M., Palagini, L., Simoncini, M., & Dell’Osso, L. (2021). The increasing challenge of the possible impact of ethnicity on psychopharmacology. CNS Spectrums, 26(3), 222–231. doi:10.1017/S1092852920000073

National Institute of Mental Health. (2022, September). Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder. https://www.nimh.nih.gov/health/topics/attention-deficit-hyperactivity-disorder-adhd

National Institute of Mental Health. (2023a, February). Bipolar disorder. https://www.nimh.nih.gov/health/topics/bipolar-disorder

National Institute of Mental Health. (2023b, April). Depression. https://www.nimh.nih.gov/health/topics/depression

National Institute of Mental Health. (2023c, May). Schizophrenia. https://www.nimh.nih.gov/health/topics/schizophrenia

National Institute of Neurological Disorders and Stroke. (n.d.). Narcolepsy. https://www.ninds.nih.gov/health-information/disorders/narcolepsy/

Rahman, M., Awosika, A., & Nguyen, H. (2023). Valproic acid. StatPearls. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/books/NBK559112/

Shoar, N. S., Bistas, K., & Saadabadi, A. (2023). Flumazenil. StatPearls. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/books/NBK470180

Van Norman, G. (2023). Off-label use vs off-label marketing of drugs: Part 1: Off-label use—patient harms and prescriber responsibilities. JACC: Basic to Translational Science, 8(2), 224–233. https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S2452302X23000116?via%3Dihub

Volkmann, C., Bschor, T., & Köhler, S. (2020). Lithium treatment over the lifespan in bipolar disorders.Frontiers in Psychiatry,11, 377. https://doi.org/10.3389/fpsyt.2020.00377

Chapter 14 Pain Response Drugs

DailyMed. (Updated March 29, 2023). Acetaminophen 325 mg- tablet. https://dailymed.nlm.nih.gov/dailymed/drugInfo.cfm?setid=25626b46-78f8-7226-e054-00144ff8d46c

DailyMed. (Updated September 21, 2019). Aspirin 325 mg-aspirin tablet. https://dailymed.nlm.nih.gov/dailymed/drugInfo.cfm?setid=73e74c1c-a556-4d2b-a15e-fd2786ea057d

DailyMed. (Updated November 2, 2019). Codeine sulfate tablet. https://dailymed.nlm.nih.gov/dailymed/drugInfo.cfm?setid=5819bdf7-300e-45b8-8f3a-447b53656293

DailyMed. (Updated December 13, 2023). Fentanyl citrate injection. https://dailymed.nlm.nih.gov/dailymed/drugInfo.cfm?setid=aacf276b-e133-4199-ad3f-67b894744c04

DailyMed. (Updated July 13, 2023). Fentanyl patch, extended release. https://dailymed.nlm.nih.gov/dailymed/drugInfo.cfm?setid=0ff70df0-2cda-d96c-42a8-3bf180310498

DailyMed. (Updated January 8, 2020). Hydromorphone hydrochloride-hydromorphone hydrochloride injection, solution. https://dailymed.nlm.nih.gov/dailymed/drugInfo.cfm?setid=e034eb96-03e0-46e1-8b92-5e1f94555e7b

DailyMed. (Updated March 19, 2020). Hydromorphone hydrochloride tablet. https://dailymed.nlm.nih.gov/dailymed/drugInfo.cfm?setid=f778dfab-e109-428e-b1b7-4dfb1b8293e4

DailyMed. (Updated April 19, 2023). Ibuprofen 200-ibuprofen tablet, film coated. https://dailymed.nlm.nih.gov/dailymed/drugInfo.cfm?setid=49a3d51d-55d1-4b80-ab7b-35c27a937cb9

DailyMed. (Updated May 10, 2023). Meperidine hydrochloride injection. https://dailymed.nlm.nih.gov/dailymed/drugInfo.cfm?setid=e0e998da-f056-4fce-be8e-ed60cf3b461b

DailyMed. (Updated September 16, 2021). Methadone hydrochloride-methadone tablet. https://dailymed.nlm.nih.gov/dailymed/drugInfo.cfm?setid=4a44bde6-c348-4316-b0e0-c24b407cb823

DailyMed. (Updated September 7, 2022). Morphine sulfate tablet. https://dailymed.nlm.nih.gov/dailymed/drugInfo.cfm?setid=07593aa4-f2c4-4d6e-b186-ab2a4ecaa38a

DailyMed. (Updated August 14, 2019). Morphine sulfate injection. https://dailymed.nlm.nih.gov/dailymed/drugInfo.cfm?setid=9362eca1-2bc9-4f72-8895-0b9179bfeb2b

DailyMed. (Updated November 28, 2023). Nalbuphine hydrochloride injection. https://dailymed.nlm.nih.gov/dailymed/drugInfo.cfm?setid=6025e8d4-5083-4c3a-58a0-050e7b0b6150

DailyMed. (Updated March 18, 2020). Naloxone hydrochloride injection. https://dailymed.nlm.nih.gov/dailymed/drugInfo.cfm?setid=b1303f15-c48b-a44d-b28a-72f370094e02

DailyMed. (Updated December 20, 2021). Naloxone hydrochloride-naloxone hydrochloride nasal spray inhalant. https://dailymed.nlm.nih.gov/dailymed/drugInfo.cfm?setid=68723486-8f21-4299-b380-7d5e3f9657b6

DailyMed. (Updated February 8, 2017). Naltrexone hydrochloride tablet. https://dailymed.nlm.nih.gov/dailymed/drugInfo.cfm?setid=49aa3d6d-2270-4615-aafa-b440859ab870

DailyMed. (Updated June 6, 2019). Naproxen caplets-naproxen sodium 220 mg tablet. https://dailymed.nlm.nih.gov/dailymed/drugInfo.cfm?setid=07120764-7c33-4c07-9367-40956d970c60

DailyMed. (Updated August 19, 2021). Oxycodone hydrochloride capsule. https://dailymed.nlm.nih.gov/dailymed/drugInfo.cfm?setid=5df92fed-6194-4905-9ef2-9eed0d2e8086

DailyMed. (December 20, 2023). Oxycontin-oxycodone hydrochloride tablet, film coated, extended release. https://dailymed.nlm.nih.gov/dailymed/drugInfo.cfm?setid=bfdfe235-d717-4855-a3c8-a13d26dadede

DailyMed. (Updated December 14, 2023). Tramadol hydrochloride tablet. https://dailymed.nlm.nih.gov/dailymed/drugInfo.cfm?setid=f3c7d874-8f9e-4687-9dac-2356ecfa86f9

DailyMed. (Updated September 30, 2022). Vivitrol-naltrexone kit. https://dailymed.nlm.nih.gov/dailymed/drugInfo.cfm?setid=cd11c435-b0f0-4bb9-ae78-60f101f3703f

National Institute on Drug Abuse. (2022, September 27). Part 1: The connection between substance use disorders and mental illness. National Institutes of Health. https://nida.nih.gov/publications/research-reports/common-comorbidities-substance-use-disorders/part-1-connection-between-substance-use-disorders-mental-illness/

National Institute on Drug Abuse. (2023, July 10). Drug overdose death rates. National Institutes of Health. https://nida.nih.gov/research-topics/trends-statistics/overdose-death-rates

Raja, S. N., Carr, D. B., Cohen, M., Finnerup, N. B., Flor, H., Gibson, S., Keefe, F. J., Mogil, J. S., Ringkamp, M., Sluka, K. A., Song, X.-J., Stevens, B., Sullivan, M. D., Tutelman, P. R., Ushida, T., & Vader, K. (2020). The revised International Association for the Study of Pain definition of pain: Concepts, challenges, and compromises. Pain, 161(9), 1976–1982. https://doi.org/10.1097/j.pain.0000000000001939

Schoenthaler, A., & Williams, N. (2022). Looking beneath the surface: Racial bias in the treatment and management of pain. JAMA Network Open, 5(6), e2216281. https://doi.org/10.1001/jamanetworkopen.2022.16281

Silva, L. O. J. E., Anderson, J. L., Bellolio, F., Campbell, R. L., & Jeffery, M. M. (2021). Codeine dispensing for privately insured children in the USA: A retrospective database study. BMJ Paediatrics Open, 5(1), e001321. https://doi.org/10.1136/bmjpo-2021-001321

Smith, T. J., & Hillner, B. E. (2019). The cost of pain. JAMA Network Open, 2(4), e001532. https://doi.org/10.1001/jamanetworkopen.2019.1532

Stancil, S. L., Adelman, W., Dietz, A., & Abdel-Rahman, S. (2019). Naltrexone reduces binge eating and purging in adolescents in an eating disorder program. Journal of Child and Adolescent Psychopharmacology, 29(9), 721–724. https://doi.org/10.1089/cap.2019.0056

U.S. Food and Drug Administration. (2023, March 29). FDA approves first over-the-counter naloxone nasal spray. https://www.fda.gov/news-events/press-announcements/fda-approves-first-over-counter-naloxone-nasal-spray

Wilson, N., Kariisa, M., Seth, P., Smith, H., IV, & Davis, N. L. (2020). Drug and opioid-involved overdose deaths: United States, 2017–2018. Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report, 69(11), 290–297. https://doi.org/10.15585/mmwr.mm6911a4

Chapter 15 Substance Use Disorder Treatment Drugs

American Psychological Association. (2023). APA dictionary of psychology. American Psychological Association.

Aronowitz, S., & Meisel, Z. F. (2022). Addressing stigma to provide quality care to people who use drugs. JAMA Network Open, 5(2), e2146980. https://doi.org/10.1001/jamanetworkopen.2021.46980

Cornelius, M. E., Wang, T. W., Jamal, A., Loretan, C. G., & Neff, L. J. (2020). Tobacco product use among adults—United States, 2019. Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report, 69(46), 1736–1742. https://doi.org/10.15585/mmwr.mm6946a4

DailyMed. (Updated December 20, 2023). Buprenorphine and naloxone-buprenorphine hydrochloride and naloxone hydrochloride tablet. https://dailymed.nlm.nih.gov/dailymed/drugInfo.cfm?setid=47236a95-ba0b-4f6a-b406-858cabc726df

DailyMed. (Updated September 15, 2017). Buprenophine hydrochloride sublingual tablet. https://dailymed.nlm.nih.gov/dailymed/drugInfo.cfm?setid=593c2a50-de4f-6bf8-e053-2a91aa0ae306

DailyMed. (Updated August 31, 2023). Bupropion-bupropion hydrochloride tablet, extended release. https://dailymed.nlm.nih.gov/dailymed/drugInfo.cfm?setid=39b2d509-1281-4464-9cf1-a94bbc18b84b

DailyMed. (Updated October 5, 2023). Chlordiazepoxide hydrochloride capsule. https://dailymed.nlm.nih.gov/dailymed/dailymed/drugInfo.cfm?setid=dd5f82b0-5a56-4728-941a-c8c2a0d51cc4

DailyMed. (Updated December 21, 2022). Habitrol-nicotine transdermal system patch, extended release. https://dailymed.nlm.nih.gov/dailymed/drugInfo.cfm?setid=051be7ae-6504-c2d8-7424-2e328e4fcfc2

DailyMed. (Updated November 13, 2023). Disulfiram tablet. https://dailymed.nlm.nih.gov/dailymed/drugInfo.cfm?setid=b90f8ff4-4fb3-46ab-8149-cb55f24a4044

DailyMed. (Updated June 6, 2023). Haloperidol-haloperidol lactate injection, solution. https://dailymed.nlm.nih.gov/dailymed/drugInfo.cfm?setid=ef1e8e3f-8c71-4400-ad4d-448af963a56c

DailyMed. (Updated May 2, 2022). Haloperidol tablet. https://dailymed.nlm.nih.gov/dailymed/drugInfo.cfm?setid=9a9e20dd-646a-4fe9-a345-1b5bda8e7775

DailyMed. (Updated October 27, 2023). Lorazepam injection. https://dailymed.nlm.nih.gov/dailymed/drugInfo.cfm?setid=20140b19-846b-425f-b191-670e17809945

DailyMed. (Updated May 4, 2022). Methadone hydrochloride concentrate. https://dailymed.nlm.nih.gov/dailymed/drugInfo.cfm?setid=14f7b1d8-344a-4eaa-a1bf-bc1a00c3ab58

DailyMed. (Updated March 18, 2020). Naloxone hydrochloride injection. https://dailymed.nlm.nih.gov/dailymed/drugInfo.cfm?setid=b1303f15-c48b-a44d-b28a-72f370094e02

DailyMed. (Updated December 20, 2021). Naloxone hydrochloride-naloxone hydrochloride nasal spray inhalant. https://dailymed.nlm.nih.gov/dailymed/drugInfo.cfm?setid=68723486-8f21-4299-b380-7d5e3f9657b6

DailyMed. (Updated February 8, 2017). Naltrexone hydrochloride tablet. https://dailymed.nlm.nih.gov/dailymed/drugInfo.cfm?setid=49aa3d6d-2270-4615-aafa-b440859ab870

DailyMed. (Updated November 9, 2023). Nicotine gum-nicotine polacrilex gum, chewing. https://dailymed.nlm.nih.gov/drugInfo.cfm?setid=3872c622-1a30-459c-b878-61648bb30627

DailyMed. (Updated December 18, 2023). Sublocade-buprenorphine solution. https://dailymed.nlm.nih.gov/dailymed/drugInfo.cfm?setid=6189fb21-9432-45f8-8481-0bfaf3ccde95

DailyMed. (Updated January 27, 2023). Varenicline tablet. https://dailymed.nlm.nih.gov/dailymed/drugInfo.cfm?setid=78d1857f-8708-5410-792f-4a3e5e7971a5

DailyMed. (Updated September 30, 2022). Vivitrol-naltrexone kit. https://dailymed.nlm.nih.gov/dailymed/drugInfo.cfm?setid=cd11c435-b0f0-4bb9-ae78-60f101f3703f

Dar, P. M., Kaur, S., Boddeda, J., & Wani, S. M. (2020). Haloperidol induced sudden cardiac arrest—report of a very rare case and review of literature. Case Reports in Psychiatry, 1836716. https://doi.org/10.1155/2020/1836716

Dydyk, A. M., Jain, N. K., & Gupta, M. (2023). Opioid use disorder. StatPearls. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/books/NBK553166/

Jeon, S., Kang, H., Cho, I., & Cho, S. (2022). The alcohol flushing response is associated with the risk of depression. Scientific Reports, 12, 12569. https://doi.org/10.1038/s41598-022-16276-2

Kennedy-Hendricks, A., McGinty, E. E., Summers, A., Krenn, S., Fingerhood, M. I., & Barry, C. L. (2022). Effect of exposure to visual campaigns and narrative vignettes on addiction stigma among health care professionals: A randomized clinical trial. JAMA Network Open, 5(2), e2146971. https://doi.org/10.1001/jamanetworkopen.2021.46971

McNeely, J., & Adam, A. (2020). Substance use screening and risk assessment in adults. Johns Hopkins University. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/books/NBK565474/table/nycgsubuse.tab9/

National Center for Drug Abuse Statistics. (n.d.). Drug use among youth: Facts & statistics. https://drugabusestatistics.org/teen-drug-use/

National Institutes of Health (NIH). (2020). Substance use in older adults: DrugFacts. https://nida.nih.gov/publications/drugfacts/substance-use-in-older-adults-drugfacts

National Institutes of Health (NIH). (2023). Alcohol facts and statistics. National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism. https://www.niaaa.nih.gov/alcohols-effects-health/alcohol-topics/alcohol-facts-and-statistics

Rehm, J., Rovira, P., Llamosas-Falcón, L., & Shield, K. D. (2021). Dose-response relationships between levels of alcohol use and risks of mortality or disease for all people, by age, sex, and specific risk factors. Nutrients, 13(8), 2652. https://doi.org/10.3390/nu13082652

Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration (SAMHSA). (2023a, January 4). SAMHSA announces National Survey on Drug Use and Health (NSDUH) results detailing mental illness and substance use levels in 2021. https://www.samhsa.gov/newsroom/press-announcements/20230104/samhsa-announces-nsduh-results-detailing-mental-illness-substance-use-levels-2021

Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration (SAMHSA). (2023b, April 25). Waiver elimination (MAT Act). https://www.samhsa.gov/medications-substance-use-disorders/removal-data-waiver-requirement

Chapter 16 Introduction to the Cardiovascular System

American Heart Association. (2022). Understanding blood pressure readings. https://www.heart.org/en/health-topics/high-blood-pressure/understanding-blood-pressure-readings

Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. (2022).Heart disease facts. https://www.cdc.gov/heartdisease/facts.htm

Evans, L., Rhodes, A., Alhazzani, W., Antonelli, M., Coopersmith, C. M., French, C., Machado, F. R., Mcintyre, L., Ostermann, M., Prescott, H. C., Schorr, C., Simpson, S., Wiersinga, W. J., Alshamsi, F., Angus, D. C., Arabi, Y., Azevedo, L., Beale, R., Beilman, G., Belley-Cote, E., … Levy, M. (2021). Surviving sepsis campaign: International guidelines for management of sepsis and septic shock 2021.Critical Care Medicine,49(11), e1063–e1143. https://doi.org/10.1097/CCM.0000000000005337

Kashou, A., Basit, H., & Chhabra, L. (2022). Physiology, sinoatrial node. StatPearls. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/books/NBK459238/

Shah, P., & Louis, M. A. (2022). Physiology, central venous pressure. StatPearls. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/books/NBK519493/

Tsao, C. W., Aday, A. W., Almarzooq, Z. I., Anderson, C. A. M., Arora, P., Avery, C. L., Baker-Smith, C. M., Beaton, A. Z., Boehme, A. K., Buxton, A. E., Commodore-Mensah, Y., Elkind, M. S. V., Evenson, K. R., Eze-Nliam, C., Fugar, S., Generoso, G., Heard, D. G., Hiremath, S., Ho, J. E., & Kalani, R. (2023). American Heart Association Council on Epidemiology and Prevention Statistics Committee and Stroke Statistics Subcommittee heart disease and stroke statistics—2023 update: A report from the American Heart Association.Circulation,147(8), e93–e621. https://doi.org/10.1161/CIR.0000000000001123

Unger, T., Borghi, C., Charchar, F., Khan, N. A., Poulter, N. R., Prabhakaran, D., Ramirez, A., Schlaich, M., Stergiou, G. S., Tomaszewski, M., Wainford, R. D., Williams, B., & Schutte, A. E. (2020). 2020 International Society of Hypertension global hypertension practice guidelines.Journal of Hypertension,38(6), 982–1004. https://doi.org/10.1097/HJH.0000000000002453

Whelton, P. K., Carey, R. M., Aronow, W. S., Casey, D. E., Jr., Collins, K. J., Dennison Himmelfarb, C., DePalma, S. M., Gidding, S., Jamerson, K. A., Jones, D. W., MacLaughlin, E. J., Muntner, P., Ovbiagele, B., Smith, S. C., Jr., Spencer, C. C., Stafford, R. S., Taler, S. J., Thomas, R. J., Williams, K. A., Sr., Williamson, J. D., & Wright, J. T., Jr. (2018). Guideline for the prevention, detection, evaluation, and management of high blood pressure in adults: Executive summary: A report of the American College of Cardiology/American Heart Association task force on clinical practice guidelines.Hypertension,71(6), 1269–1324. https://doi.org/10.1161/HYP.0000000000000066

World Health Organization. (2021). Cardiovascular diseases (CVDs). https://www.who.int/news-room/fact-sheets/detail/cardiovascular-diseases-(cvds)

Zhang, C., Xiang, C., Tian, X., Xue, J., He, G., Wu, X., Mei, Z., & Li, T. (2021). Roles of nursing in the management of geriatric cardiovascular diseases.Frontiers in Medicine,8, 682218. https://doi.org/10.3389/fmed.2021.682218

Chapter 17 Antidysrhythmic Drugs

Al-Khatib, S. M., Stevenson, W. G., Ackerman, M. J., Bryant, W. J., Callans, D. J., Curtis, A. B., Deal, B. J., Dickfeld, T., Field, M. E., Fonarow, G. C., Gillis, A. M., Granger, C. B., Hammill, S. C., Hlatky, M. A., Joglar, J. A., Kay, G. N., Matlock, D. D., Myerburg, R. J., & Page, R. L. (2018). 2017 AHA/ACC/HRS guideline for management of patients with ventricular arrhythmias and the prevention of sudden cardiac death: A report of the American College of Cardiology/American Heart Association Task Force on Clinical Practice Guidelines and the Heart Rhythm Society. Circulation, 138(13), e272–e391. https://doi.org/10.1161/CIR.0000000000000549

American Geriatrics Society Beers Criteria® Update Expert Panel. (2019). American Geriatrics Society 2019 updated AGS Beers Criteria® for potentially inappropriate medication use in older adults. Journal of the American Geriatrics Society, 67(4), 674–694. https://doi.org/10.1111/jgs.15767

Cummings, E. D., & Swoboda, H. D. (2023). Digoxin toxicity. StatPearls. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/books/NBK470568/

Curtis, A. B., Karki, R., Hattoum, A., & Sharma, U. C. (2018). Arrhythmias in patients ≥80 years of age: Pathophysiology, management, and outcomes. Journal of the American College of Cardiology, 71(18), 2041–2057. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jacc.2018.03.019

DailyMed. (Updated December 4, 2017). Adenosine injection. https://dailymed.nlm.nih.gov/dailymed/drugInfo.cfm?setid=ab2edabd-e57d-4754-9822-93bd17af9e88

DailyMed. (Updated December 28, 2022). Amiodarone HCL—Amiodarone hydrochloride tablet. https://dailymed.nlm.nih.gov/dailymed/drugInfo.cfm?setid=d779a746-0bdd-49cc-b0d8-5f9a72524b8c

DailyMed. (Updated January 30, 2023). Amiodarone hydrochloride-amiodarone hydrochloride injection, solution. https://dailymed.nlm.nih.gov/dailymed/drugInfo.cfm?setid=d8d04647-8e25-4127-8ecf-360ce1991c2f

DailyMed. (Updated June 14, 2023). Atenolol tablet. https://dailymed.nlm.nih.gov/dailymed/drugInfo.cfm?setid=1b8a4689-3916-4f4b-b54a-bbb4e322d79b

DailyMed. (Updated June 16, 2023). Atropine sulfate injection. https://dailymed.nlm.nih.gov/dailymed/drugInfo.cfm?setid=739f384f-1a69-4953-93a0-aa6a76de0ecc

DailyMed. (Updated January 14, 2021). Bisoprolol—Bisoprolol fumarate tablet, film coated. https://dailymed.nlm.nih.gov/dailymed/drugInfo.cfm?setid=bba0bc2b-602f-4df1-a761-85bd3c80c7de

DailyMed. (Updated October 1, 2020). Digoxin injection. https://dailymed.nlm.nih.gov/dailymed/drugInfo.cfm?setid=9b9a4b3c-5f08-475a-a74d-0c7ebba40644

DailyMed. (Updated April 1, 2020). Diltiazem HCL CD—Diltiazem hydrochloride capsule, coated, extended release. https://dailymed.nlm.nih.gov/dailymed/drugInfo.cfm?setid=5e39be50-ea17-4077-a2dc-668267049f6a

DailyMed. (Updated January 12, 2015). Diltiazem HCL injection, solution. https://dailymed.nlm.nih.gov/dailymed/drugInfo.cfm?setid=7fc9bee3-9e04-4b3e-a49b-3151d6623a3b

DailyMed. (Updated November 23, 2023). Diltiazem hydrochloride capsule, extended release. https://dailymed.nlm.nih.gov/dailymed/drugInfo.cfm?setid=70293a05-d314-43fa-a2b1-398cfb39edf8

DailyMed. (Updated November 23, 2023). Dofetilide capsule. https://dailymed.nlm.nih.gov/dailymed/drugInfo.cfm?setid=4c1a5a6d-bd69-473c-8caa-d0d242b7708d

DailyMed. (Updated July 19, 2023). Esmolol hydrochloride—Esmolol hydrochloride in sodium chloride injection. https://dailymed.nlm.nih.gov/dailymed/drugInfo.cfm?setid=4cfdfa50-579b-43e7-bc0a-e831d3099bfd

DailyMed. (Updated July 26, 2023). Flecainide acetate—Flecainide acetate tablet. https://dailymed.nlm.nih.gov/dailymed/drugInfo.cfm?setid=5a12889a-52ce-4dc4-9240-22d126f071ac

DailyMed. (Updated December 23, 2020). Ibutilide fumarate injection, solution. https://dailymed.nlm.nih.gov/dailymed/drugInfo.cfm?setid=c25d21e7-6136-4a7a-b139-12f53116fc3d

DailyMed. (Updated August 5, 2022). Lidocaine—Lidocaine hydrochloride injection, solution. https://dailymed.nlm.nih.gov/dailymed/drugInfo.cfm?setid=f1b26274-a55e-4321-b96c-ce0df830f205

DailyMed. (Updated February 10, 2023). Metoprolol—Metoprolol tartrate injection. https://dailymed.nlm.nih.gov/dailymed/drugInfo.cfm?setid=09566368-f91d-43a3-b683-30c844fb125a

DailyMed. (Updated February 7, 2018). Metoprolol succinate capsule, extended release. https://dailymed.nlm.nih.gov/dailymed/drugInfo.cfm?setid=90aa06a3-100f-4466-b950-506303707b01

DailyMed. (Updated May 5, 2023). Metoprolol tartrate—Metoprolol tablet. https://dailymed.nlm.nih.gov/dailymed/drugInfo.cfm?setid=24837d82-0f3f-4482-9af0-31e5f675c30f

DailyMed. (Updated March 14, 2023). Mexiletine hydrochloride capsule. https://dailymed.nlm.nih.gov/dailymed/drugInfo.cfm?setid=1b3a807f-368a-42dc-8266-ddf8347a8826

DailyMed. (Updated November 3, 2023). Multaq—Dronedarone tablet, film coated. https://dailymed.nlm.nih.gov/dailymed/drugInfo.cfm?setid=7fa41601-7fb5-4155-8e50-2ae903f0d2d6

DailyMed. (Updated December 15, 2016). Procainamide hydrochloride injection. https://dailymed.nlm.nih.gov/dailymed/drugInfo.cfm?setid=d7cb1594-61cf-41c4-9007-1ee28aa69c50

DailyMed. (Updated February 28, 2019). Propafenone HCL—Propafenone hydrochloride tablet, film coated. https://dailymed.nlm.nih.gov/dailymed/drugInfo.cfm?setid=a313c111-e539-47bc-9d57-c3767f74bcca

DailyMed. (Updated December 31, 2015). Propranolol hydrochloride capsule, extended release. https://dailymed.nlm.nih.gov/dailymed/drugInfo.cfm?setid=a4edba76-29b8-41fb-bf0b-d4633abba003

DailyMed. (Updated March 7, 2022). Propranolol hydrochloride tablet. https://dailymed.nlm.nih.gov/dailymed/drugInfo.cfm?setid=b94dcec7-7633-4a33-9cea-48161adeaf93

DailyMed. (Updated December 29, 2021). Quinidine gluconate—Quinidine gluconate tablet, extended release. https://dailymed.nlm.nih.gov/dailymed/drugInfo.cfm?setid=4db375a3-0cff-4fa7-af7a-2a49e0b922d0

DailyMed. (Updated September 13, 2019). Quinidine sulfate tablet. https://dailymed.nlm.nih.gov/dailymed/drugInfo.cfm?setid=a10b6ded-4fe0-4059-bd77-c45acc3c876d

DailyMed. (Updated April 26, 2021). Sorine-sotalol hydrochloride tablet. https://dailymed.nlm.nih.gov/dailymed/drugInfo.cfm?setid=6ee6e904-a8e2-41d4-8261-67103ecfa605

DailyMed. (Updated February 24, 2020). Sotalol hydrochloride AF—Sotalol hydrochloride tables af tablet; sotalol hydrochloride AF—Sotalol hydrochloride tablets af tablet. https://dailymed.nlm.nih.gov/dailymed/drugInfo.cfm?setid=2577dd8d-ab1b-4a55-990a-18c69395edfe

DailyMed. (Updated November 9, 2021). Sotalol hydrochloride tablet. https://dailymed.nlm.nih.gov/dailymed/drugInfo.cfm?setid=c0a34c56-9641-4592-9754-bcc233ec86b6

DailyMed. (Updated March 31, 2023). Verapamil hydrochloride capsule, extended release. https://dailymed.nlm.nih.gov/dailymed/drugInfo.cfm?setid=18f6d349-8c5c-4443-ac65-16bf6619ecdc

DailyMed. (Updated January 4, 2020). Verapamil hydrochloride injection. https://dailymed.nlm.nih.gov/dailymed/drugInfo.cfm?setid=51597adb-bfb1-4611-b577-8989724fc3a4

El Baba, M., Sabayon, D., & Refaat, M. M. (2020). Radiofrequency catheter ablation: How to manage and prevent collateral damage? The Journal of Innovations in Cardiac Rhythm Management, 11(9), 4234–4240. https://doi.org/10.19102/icrm.2020.110901

Groh, C. A., Faulkner, M., Getabecha, S., Taffe, V., Nah, G., Sigona, K., McCall, D., Hills, M. T., Sciarappa, K., Pletcher, M. J., Olgin, J. E., & Marcus, G. M. (2019). Patient-reported triggers of paroxysmal atrial fibrillation. Heart Rhythm, 16(7), 996–1002. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.hrthm.2019.01.027

Hopewell, J. C., Offer, A., Haynes, R., Bowman, L., Li, J., Chen, F., Bulbulia, R., Lathrop, M., Baigent, C., Landray, M. J., Collins, R., Armitage, J., & Parish, S. (2020). Independent risk factors for simvastatin-related myopathy and relevance to different types of muscle symptom. European Heart Journal, 41(35), 3336–3342. https://doi.org/10.1093/eurheartj/ehaa574

January, C. T., Wann, L. S., Alpert, J. S., Calkins, H., Cigarroa, J. E., Cleveland, J. C., Jr., Conti, J. B., Ellinor, P. T., Ezekowitz, M. D., Field, M. E., Murray, K. T., Sacco, R. L., Stevenson, W. G., Tchou, P. J., Tracy, C. M., Yancy, C. W., & American College of Cardiology/American Heart Association Task Force on Practice Guidelines. (2014). 2014 AHA/ACC/HRS guideline for the management of patients with atrial fibrillation: A report of the American College of Cardiology/American Heart Association Task Force on Practice Guidelines and the Heart Rhythm Society. Journal of the American College of Cardiology, 64(21), e1–e76. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jacc.2014.03.022

King, G. S., Goyal, A., Grigorova, Y., & Hashmi, M. F. (2023). Antiarrhythmic medications. StatPearls. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/books/NBK482322/

Kusumoto, F. M., Schoenfeld, M. H., Barrett, C., Edgerton, J. R., Ellenbogen, K. A., Gold, M. R., Goldschlager, N. F., Hamilton, R. M., Joglar, J. A., Kim, R. J., Lee, R., Marine, J. E., McLeod, C. J., Oken, K. R., Patton, K. K., Pellegrini, C. N., Selzman, K. A., Thompson, A., & Varosy, P. D. (2019). 2018 ACC/AHA/HRS guideline on the evaluation and management of patients with bradycardia and cardiac conduction delay: A report of the American College of Cardiology/American Heart Association Task Force on Clinical Practice Guidelines and the Heart Rhythm Society. Circulation, 140(8), e382–e482. https://doi.org/10.1161/CIR.0000000000000628

Lopes, R. D., Rordorf, R., De Ferrari, G. M., Leonardi, S., Thomas, L., Wojdyla, D. M., Ridefelt, P., Lawrence, J. H., De Caterina, R., Vinereanu, D., Hanna, M., Flaker, G., Al-Khatib, S. M., Hohnloser, S. H., Alexander, J. H., Granger, C. B., Wallentin, L., & ARISTOTLE Committees and Investigators. (2018). Digoxin and mortality in patients with atrial fibrillation. Journal of the American College of Cardiology, 71(10), 1063–1074. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jacc.2017.12.060

McLendon, K., & Preuss, C. V. (2022). Atropine. StatPearls. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/books/NBK470551/

National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute. (2022). Arrhythmias: Causes and triggers. https://www.nhlbi.nih.gov/health/arrhythmias/causes

Niehues, L. J., & Klovenski, V. (2022). Vagal maneuver. StatPearls. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/books/NBK551575/

Oeffl, N., Schober, L., Faudon, P., Schweintzger, S., Manninger, M., Köstenberger, M., Sallmon, H., Scherr, D., & Kurath-Koller, S. (2023). Antiarrhythmic drug dosing in children—Review of the literature. Children (Basel), 10(5), 847. https://doi.org/10.3390/children10050847

Pevtsov, A., & Fredlund, K. L. (2023). Esmolol. StatPearls. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/books/NBK518965/

U.S. Food and Drug Administration. (2017). FDA Drug Safety Communication: New restrictions, contraindications, and dose limitations for Zocor. https://www.fda.gov/drugs/drug-safety-and-availability/fda-drug-safety-communication-new-restrictions-contraindications-and-dose-limitations-zocor

Chapter 18 Antihypertensive and Antianginal Drugs

Abrahamowicz, A. A., Ebinger, J., Whelton, S. P., Commodore-Mensah, Y., & Yang, E. (2023). Racial and ethnic disparities in hypertension: Barriers and opportunities to improve blood pressure control. Current Cardiology Reports, 25(1), 17–27. https://doi.org/10.1007/s11886-022-01826-x

Aggarwal, R., Yeh, R. W., Joynt-Maddox, K. E., & Wadhera, R. K. (2023). Cardiovascular risk factor prevalence, treatment, and control in US adults aged 20 to 44 years, 2009 to March 2020. Journal of the American Medical Association, 329(11), 899–909. https://doi.org/10.1001/jama.2023.2307

Akbari, P., & Khorasani-Zadeh, A. (2022). Thiazide diuretics. StatPearls. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/books/NBK557838/

American Heart Association. (2022a). Angina (chest pain). https://www.heart.org/en/health-topics/heart-attack/angina-chest-pain

American Heart Association. (2022b). Understanding blood pressure readings. https://www.heart.org/en/health-topics/high-blood-pressure/understanding-blood-pressure-readings

American Heart Association. (2023). Children with high blood pressure often become adults with high blood pressure. https://newsroom.heart.org/news/children-with-high-blood-pressure-often-become-adults-with-high-blood-pressure

American Heart Association. (n.d.-a). Health threats from high blood pressure. https://www.heart.org/en/health-topics/high-blood-pressure/health-threats-from-high-blood-pressure

American Heart Association. (n.d.-b). How much sodium should I eat per day? https://www.heart.org/en/healthy-living/healthy-eating/eat-smart/sodium/how-much-sodium-should-i-eat-per-day

American Heart Association. (n.d.-c). Does smoking increase your high blood pressure risk? https://www.heart.org/en/health-topics/high-blood-pressure/changes-you-can-make-to-manage-high-blood-pressure/smoking-high-blood-pressure-and-your-health

American Heart Association. (n.d.-d). What exercise is right for me? https://www.heart.org/en/healthy-living/go-red-get-fit/what-exercise-is-right-for-me

Carter, A. (2022). Angiotensin II receptor blockers (ARBs). Healthline. https://www.healthline.com/health/heart-disease/arbs

Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. (n.d.). Facts about hypertension. https://www.cdc.gov/bloodpressure/facts.htm

Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. (2023). STD health equity. https://www.cdc.gov/std/health-disparities/default.htm

Challa, H. J., & Ameer, M. A. (2023). DASH diet to stop hypertension. StatPearls. https://www.statpearls.com/ArticleLibrary/viewarticle/38838

Colvin, C. L., King, J. B., Oparil, S., Wright, J. T., Jr, Ogedegbe, G., Mohanty, A., Hardy, S. T., Huang, L., Hess, R., Muntner, P., & Bress, A. (2020). Association of race/ethnicity-specific changes in antihypertensive medication classes initiated among Medicare beneficiaries with the Eighth Joint National Committee Panel Member Report. JAMA Network Open, 3(11), e2025127. https://doi.org/10.1001/jamanetworkopen.2020.25127

DailyMed. (Updated December 21, 2021). Amiloride hydrochloride tablet. https://dailymed.nlm.nih.gov/dailymed/drugInfo.cfm?setid=e0cc2d44-436a-47e8-a890-589882fff4c4

DailyMed. (Updated January 15, 2021). Amlodipine besylate-amlodipine besylate tablet. https://dailymed.nlm.nih.gov/dailymed/drugInfo.cfm?setid=829aad05-7f21-41c2-b80b-2da793ae70d7

DailyMed. (Updated June 14, 2023). Atenolol tablet. https://dailymed.nlm.nih.gov/dailymed/drugInfo.cfm?setid=1b8a4689-3916-4f4b-b54a-bbb4e322d79b

DailyMed. (Updated January 19, 2023). Benazepril HCL tablet. https://dailymed.nlm.nih.gov/dailymed/drugInfo.cfm?setid=3631d1dc-45e1-0588-e054-00144ff88e88

DailyMed. (Updated November 28, 2023). Calan SR-verapamil hydrochloride tablet, film coated, extended release. https://dailymed.nlm.nih.gov/dailymed/drugInfo.cfm?setid=acb6e57b-af44-432f-a4de-a293a2e20121

DailyMed. (Updated December 28, 2022). Candesartan tablet. https://dailymed.nlm.nih.gov/dailymed/drugInfo.cfm?setid=8ceb5658-b03c-475d-9ef0-2cd0645191d3

DailyMed. (Updated December 31, 2022). Captopril tablet. https://dailymed.nlm.nih.gov/dailymed/drugInfo.cfm?setid=5b44ab6e-6cd9-4e12-b9be-d2e4d954acb5

DailyMed. (Updated November 22, 2022). Cardene IV-nicardipine hydrochloride injection, solution. https://dailymed.nlm.nih.gov/dailymed/drugInfo.cfm?setid=5499cfac-9147-4d5d-a8cb-f8d64f1481af

DailyMed. (Updated August 6, 2016). Cardene SR-nicardipine hydrochloride capsule, extended release. https://dailymed.nlm.nih.gov/dailymed/drugInfo.cfm?setid=613c79eb-b34d-4fea-82d0-61b8c4840182

DailyMed. (Updated August 17, 2021). Carvedilol tablet. https://dailymed.nlm.nih.gov/dailymed/drugInfo.cfm?setid=7a7d3ca1-05b0-4c7e-aefa-492cc441585d

DailyMed. (Updated October 11, 2023). Chlorthalidone-chlorthalidone tablet. https://dailymed.nlm.nih.gov/dailymed/drugInfo.cfm?setid=648f005f-1eae-4718-bc3a-2587d706fae2

DailyMed. (Updated April 1, 2020). Diltiazem HCL CD-diltiazem hydrochloride capsule, coated, extended release. https://dailymed.nlm.nih.gov/dailymed/drugInfo.cfm?setid=5e39be50-ea17-4077-a2dc-668267049f6a

DailyMed. (Updated May 2, 2023). Enalapril maleate tablet. https://dailymed.nlm.nih.gov/dailymed/drugInfo.cfm?setid=5c49fb37-1f09-4965-b213-5580d3a30a11

DailyMed. (Updated January 4, 2023). Hydrochlorothiazide capsule. https://dailymed.nlm.nih.gov/dailymed/drugInfo.cfm?setid=e31bd548-29ae-419a-831a-80ebb26e042f

DailyMed. (Updated May 18, 2012). Isosorbide dinitrate tablet. https://dailymed.nlm.nih.gov/dailymed/drugInfo.cfm?setid=44ede034-1fa1-4993-9aa5-49e04fada541

DailyMed. (Updated July 13, 2022). Isosorbide dinitrate-isosorbide dinitrate tablet. https://dailymed.nlm.nih.gov/dailymed/drugInfo.cfm?setid=b166eb5b-bad8-4663-9c05-1c43539dab2c

DailyMed. (Updated October 8, 2006). Isosorbide dinitrate-isorbide dinitrate tablet, extended release. https://dailymed.nlm.nih.gov/dailymed/drugInfo.cfm?setid=11fa7725-cb19-46f6-9468-01a0a430492c

DailyMed. (Updated October 31, 2022). Isosorbide mononitrate tablet. https://dailymed.nlm.nih.gov/dailymed/drugInfo.cfm?setid=ae8f74f0-e600-4452-8557-958b603e2709

DailyMed. (Updated January 4, 2019). Isosorbide mononitrate ER tablet, extended release. https://dailymed.nlm.nih.gov/dailymed/drugInfo.cfm?setid=ae8f74f0-e600-4452-8557-958b603e2709

DailyMed. (Updated November 3, 2021). Lisinopril tablet. https://dailymed.nlm.nih.gov/dailymed/drugInfo.cfm?setid=8f20acd7-2635-4a9b-b732-2a84ea93dea7

DailyMed. (Updated March 7, 2023). Losartan potassium-losartan tablet. https://dailymed.nlm.nih.gov/dailymed/drugInfo.cfm?setid=ca012edc-923d-4ada-a261-db82b71b3c4f

DailyMed. (Updated May 5, 2023). Metoprolol tartrate-metoprololol tablet. https://dailymed.nlm.nih.gov/dailymed/drugInfo.cfm?setid=24837d82-0f3f-4482-9af0-31e5f675c30f

DailyMed. (Updated June 29, 2022). Nadolol tablet. https://dailymed.nlm.nih.gov/dailymed/drugInfo.cfm?setid=e2e24b14-0169-4028-828a-894ad3c2ba55

DailyMed. (Updated April 5, 2023). Nicardipine hydrochloride capsule. https://dailymed.nlm.nih.gov/dailymed/drugInfo.cfm?setid=d1e275b8-c71a-4e8b-bca0-cfea048b5343

DailyMed. (Updated August 3, 2023). Nifedipine capsule. https://dailymed.nlm.nih.gov/dailymed/drugInfo.cfm?setid=b8b8cfee-ea71-44c2-81af-675efecfdf15

DailyMed. (Updated January 18, 2022). Nifedipine ER-nifedipine tablet, film coated, extended release. https://dailymed.nlm.nih.gov/dailymed/drugInfo.cfm?setid=d1a78ff2-7672-3e69-00ef-63d203c80484

DailyMed. (Updated August 22, 2016). Nitroglycerin in dextrose-nitroglycerin injection. https://dailymed.nlm.nih.gov/dailymed/drugInfo.cfm?setid=457a026c-ebce-4701-9deb-2d7652759a99

DailyMed. (Updated December 8, 2021). Nitroglycerin lingual-nitroglycerin spray. https://dailymed.nlm.nih.gov/dailymed/drugInfo.cfm?setid=e7bbeff1-e4f1-43a6-a1b3-a8c3dcae817d

DailyMed. (Updated December 9, 2022). Nitroglycerin ointment. https://dailymed.nlm.nih.gov/dailymed/drugInfo.cfm?setid=7da79fdf-0969-1ddd-e053-2991aa0a3ec4

DailyMed. (Updated January 3, 2011). Nitroglycerin slocaps-nitroglycerin sustained-release capusles capsule. https://dailymed.nlm.nih.gov/dailymed/drugInfo.cfm?setid=bd2f4e87-e595-4099-acb9-e36803170f72

DailyMed. (Updated November 20, 2018). Nitroglycerin tablet, orally disintegrating. https://dailymed.nlm.nih.gov/dailymed/drugInfo.cfm?setid=041f127e-5166-4484-bc1a-0a373d1187ae

DailyMed. (Updated November 3, 2014). Nitroglycerin patch. https://dailymed.nlm.nih.gov/dailymed/drugInfo.cfm?setid=e98a2692-1cb9-4994-98d8-1d8d9ef1a256

DailyMed. (Updated September 12, 2022). Nitroglycerin tablet. https://dailymed.nlm.nih.gov/dailymed/drugInfo.cfm?setid=d6df0d74-9c72-0bfd-aab8-b4967ef46c54

DailyMed. (Updated July 20, 2018). Nipride RTU – sodium nitroprusside injection, solution. https://dailymed.nlm.nih.gov/dailymed/drugInfo.cfm?setid=5acf0836-93ff-4064-b888-3f560e8a558d

DailyMed. (Updated December 27, 2022). Propranolol hydrochloride tablet. https://dailymed.nlm.nih.gov/dailymed/drugInfo.cfm?setid=14d0c95d-418f-40a8-bad3-e20c82424960

DailyMed. (Updated November 25, 2020). Spironolactone tablet. https://dailymed.nlm.nih.gov/dailymed/drugInfo.cfm?setid=fb66327e-8261-46ae-b39a-4fa79d520844

DailyMed. (Updated December 30, 2022). Telmisartan tablet. https://dailymed.nlm.nih.gov/dailymed/drugInfo.cfm?setid=c62d424c-7630-413c-be2c-3932831c3f1d

DailyMed. (Updated July 3, 2023). Triamterene capsule. https://dailymed.nlm.nih.gov/dailymed/drugInfo.cfm?setid=a09c2212-1dd5-4fbe-ad09-2a57aeabcaea

DailyMed. (Updated August 18, 2021). Valsartan tablet. https://dailymed.nlm.nih.gov/dailymed/drugInfo.cfm?setid=8478a05f-38fd-412d-af49-69a73a787c8f

DailyMed. (Updated June 3, 2019). Verapamil HCL tablet. https://dailymed.nlm.nih.gov/dailymed/drugInfo.cfm?setid=8a7002e7-e01f-43f9-e053-2a95a90a7191

Dungan, K., Merrill, J., Long, C., & Binkley, P. (2019). Effect of beta blocker use and type on hypoglycemia risk among hospitalized insulin requiring patients. Cardiovascular Diabetology. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6882013/

Farzam, K., & Jan, A. (2022). Beta blockers. StatPearls. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/books/NBK532906/

Goyal, A., Cusick, A. S., & Thielemier, B. (2022). ACE inhibitors. StatPearls. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/books/NBK430896/

Harvard Health Publishing. (2022). Meditation and a relaxation technique to lower blood pressure. https://www.health.harvard.edu/heart-health/meditation-and-a-relaxation-technique-to-lower-blood-pressure

Herawati, I., Mat Ludin, A. F., M, M., Ishak, I., & Farah, N. M. F. (2023). Breathing exercise for hypertensive patients: A scoping review. Frontiers in Physiology, 14, 1048338. https://doi.org/10.3389/fphys.2023.1048338

Huang, K. Y., Tseng, P. T., Wu, Y. C., Tu, Y. K., Stubbs, B., Su, K. P., Matsuoka, Y. J., Hsu, C. W., Lin, C. H., Chen, Y. W., & Lin, P.-Y. (2021). Do beta-adrenergic blocking agents increase asthma exacerbation? A network meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials. Scientific Reports. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7801657/

Iqbal, A. M., & Jamal, S. F. (2022). Essential hypertension. StatPearls. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/books/NBK539859/

Jun, H. R., Hyunah, K., Lee, S. H., Cho, J. H., Lee, H., Yim, H. W., Yoon, K. H., & Kim, H. S. (2021). Onset of hyperkalemia following the administration of angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitor or angiotensin II receptor blocker. Cardiovascular Therapeutics, PMC7943268. https://doi.org/10.1155/2021/5935149

Khalil, H., & Zeltser, R. (2022). Antihypertensive medications. StatPearls. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/books/NBK554579/

Lee, P. M., & Gerriets, V. (2022) Nitrates. StatPearls. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/books/NBK545149/

National Center for Complementary and Integrative Health. (2021). Complementary health approaches for hypertension: What the science says. https://www.nccih.nih.gov/health/providers/digest/complementary-health-approaches-for-hypertension-science

Rousan, T. A., & Thadani, U. (2019). Stable angina medical therapy management guidelines: A critical review of guidelines from the European Society of Cardiology and National Institute for Health and Care Excellence. European Cardiology Review, 14(1), 18–22. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6523058/

Sanches, M., & Teixeira, A. L. (2021). The renin-angiotensin system, mood, and suicide: Are there associations? World Journal of Psychiatry, 11(9), 581–588. https://doi.org/10.5498/wjp.v11.i9.581

Shahrokhi, M., & Gupta, V. (2023). Propranolol. StatPearls. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6882013/

Tucker, W. D., Sankar, P., & Kariyanna, P. T. (2022). Selective beta 1 blockers. StatPearls. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/books/NBK499982/

Ueng, K. C., Chiang, C. E., Chao, T. H., Wu, Y. W., Lee, W. L., Li, Y. H., Ting, K. H., Su, C. H., Lin, H. J., Su, T. C., Liu, T. J., Lin, T. H., Hsu, P. C., Wang, Y. C., Chen, Z. C., Jen, H. L., Lin, P. L., Ko, F. Y., Yen, H. W., Chen, W. J., & Hou, C. J. (2023). 2023 guidelines of the Taiwan Society of Cardiology on the diagnosis and management of chronic coronary syndrome. Acta Cardiologica Sinica, 39(1), 4–96. https://doi.org/10.6515/ACS.202301_39(1).20221103A

Verma, N., Rastogi, S., Chia, Y. C., Siddique, S., Turana, Y., Cheng, H. M., Sogunuru, G. P., Tay, J. C., Teo, B. W., Wang, T. A., Tsoi, K. K. F., & Kario, K. (2021). Non-pharmacological management of hypertension. Journal of Clinical Hypertension, 18(7), 1275–1283. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8678745/

Wake, A. D. (2021). The role of dietary salt and alcohol use reduction in the management of hypertension. Expert Review of Cardiovascular Therapy, 19(1), 27–40. https://doi.org/10.1080/14779072.2021.1850266

Wenger, N. K., Lloyd-Jones, D. M., Elkind, M. S. V., Fonarow, G. C., Warner, J. J., Alger, H. M., Cheng, S., Kinzy, C., Hall, J. L., & Roger, V. L. (2022). Call to action for cardiovascular disease in women: Epidemiology, awareness, access, and delivery of equitable health care: A presidential advisory from the American Heart Association. Circulation, 145(3). https://doi.org/10.1161/CIR.0000000000001071

Chapter 19 Heart Failure Drugs

American Heart Association. (n.d.). Heart failure tools and resources. https://www.heart.org/en/health-topics/heart-failure/heart-failure-tools-resources

Astra Zeneca. (2012). Zestril. https://www.accessdata.fda.gov/drugsatfda_docs/label/2012/019777s060lbl.pdf

Colvin, C. L., King, J. B., Oparil, S., Wright, J. T., Jr., Ogedegbe, G., Mohanty, A., Hardy, S. T., Huang, L., Hess, R., Muntner, P., & Bress, A. (2020). Association of race/ethnicity-specific changes in antihypertensive medication classes initiated among Medicare beneficiaries with the Eighth Joint National Committee Panel Member Report. JAMA Network Open, 3(11), e2025127. https://doi.org/10.1001/jamanetworkopen.2020.25127

DailyMed. (Updated January 14, 2021). Bisoprolol fumarate tablet, film coated. https://dailymed.nlm.nih.gov/dailymed/drugInfo.cfm?setid=bba0bc2b-602f-4df1-a761-85bd3c80c7de

DailyMed. (Updated April 7, 2023). Bumetanide injection. https://dailymed.nlm.nih.gov/dailymed/drugInfo.cfm?setid=308c690f-c2bd-4c32-8728-42ec95425f77

DailyMed. (Updated December 12, 2023). Bumex-bumetanide tablet. https://dailymed.nlm.nih.gov/dailymed/drugInfo.cfm?setid=32dfbea3-eb2b-4070-8605-57ce3e6d5a2f

DailyMed. (Updated December 28, 2022). Candesartan tablet. https://dailymed.nlm.nih.gov/dailymed/drugInfo.cfm?setid=8ceb5658-b03c-475d-9ef0-2cd0645191d3

DailyMed. (Updated December 31, 2022). Captopril-captopril tablet. https://dailymed.nlm.nih.gov/dailymed/drugInfo.cfm?setid=5b44ab6e-6cd9-4e12-b9be-d2e4d954acb5

DailyMed. (Updated October 6, 2007). Carvedilol tablet, coated for oral use. https://dailymed.nlm.nih.gov/dailymed/drugInfo.cfm?setid=7d485d38-5d43-4a54-bc63-82734035c66a

DailyMed. (Updated December 1, 2023). Chlorothiazide sodium injection, powder, lyophilized, for solution. https://dailymed.nlm.nih.gov/dailymed/drugInfo.cfm?setid=de512e9b-444c-4ae4-8c6b-accd87a02021

DailyMed. (Updated August 29, 2022). Chlorthalidone chlorthalidone-chlorthalidone tablet. https://dailymed.nlm.nih.gov/dailymed/drugInfo.cfm?setid=a1043a72-8e64-49da-a7e4-eadee083022e

DailyMed. (Updated March 24, 2023). Corlanor-ivabradine tablet, film coated. https://dailymed.nlm.nih.gov/dailymed/drugInfo.cfm?setid=8930b396-2bce-4fd7-ba03-14b8f2679dd1

DailyMed. (Updated February 6, 2007). Demadex-torsemide tablet. https://dailymed.nlm.nih.gov/dailymed/drugInfo.cfm?setid=cf288ad5-d4e7-4b0b-bfd0-41c5327e6984

DailyMed. (Updated December 30, 2022). Digoxin tablet. https://dailymed.nlm.nih.gov/dailymed/drugInfo.cfm?setid=f3d29508-e7cc-47ff-845d-b5375ee30407

DailyMed. (Updated March 10, 2008). Enalapril maleate-enalapril maleate tablet. https://dailymed.nlm.nih.gov/dailymed/drugInfo.cfm?setid=ac0289a6-9533-4f8c-b46c-506dce1b90b5

DailyMed. (Updated August 7, 2023). Entresto-sacubitril and valsartan tablet, film coated. https://dailymed.nlm.nih.gov/dailymed/drugInfo.cfm?setid=000dc81d-ab91-450c-8eae-8eb74e72296f

DailyMed. (Updated September 12, 2023). Farxiga-dapagliflozin tablet, film coated. https://dailymed.nlm.nih.gov/dailymed/drugInfo.cfm?setid=72ad22ae-efe6-4cd6-a302-98aaee423d69

DailyMed. (Updated December 31, 2019). Fosinopril sodium-fosinopril sodium tablet. https://dailymed.nlm.nih.gov/dailymed/drugInfo.cfm?setid=0a66f606-5e6f-473d-8a1e-9ef316adb2e2

DailyMed. (Updated January 4, 2023). Hydrochlorothiazide capsule. https://dailymed.nlm.nih.gov/dailymed/drugInfo.cfm?setid=e31bd548-29ae-419a-831a-80ebb26e042f

DailyMed. (Updated October 26, 2023). Indapamide tablet, film coated. https://dailymed.nlm.nih.gov/dailymed/drugInfo.cfm?setid=a8a4ec2c-9d4b-482b-ad29-88185c96db74

DailyMed. (Updated October 1, 2021). Inspra-eplerenone tablet, film coated. https://dailymed.nlm.nih.gov/dailymed/drugInfo.cfm?setid=a55a39ff-1bd5-428b-a64f-c44262e2f3ed

DailyMed. (Updated May 11, 2022). Isosorbide dinitrate and hydralazine hydrochloride tablet. https://dailymed.nlm.nih.gov/dailymed/drugInfo.cfm?setid=8f54d5a3-169f-48dd-9250-2c176d2bd9ad

DailyMed. (Updated November 21, 2023). Jaridance-empagliflozin tablet, film coated. https://dailymed.nlm.nih.gov/dailymed/drugInfo.cfm?setid=faf3dd6a-9cd0-39c2-0d2e-232cb3f67565

DailyMed. (Updated February 13, 2023). Lasix-furosemide tablet. https://dailymed.nlm.nih.gov/dailymed/drugInfo.cfm?setid=2c9b4d8f-0770-482d-a9e6-9c616a440b1a

DailyMed. (Updated November 3, 2021). Lisinopril-lisinopril tablet. https://dailymed.nlm.nih.gov/dailymed/drugInfo.cfm?setid=8f20acd7-2635-4a9b-b732-2a84ea93dea7

DailyMed. (Updated November 12, 2020). Losartan potassium tablet, film-coated. https://dailymed.nlm.nih.gov/dailymed/drugInfo.cfm?setid=f5ce4488-8294-414a-bced-d63be563ea38

DailyMed. (Updated February 7, 2018). Metoprolol succinate capsule, extended release. https://dailymed.nlm.nih.gov/dailymed/drugInfo.cfm?setid=90aa06a3-100f-4466-b950-506303707b01

DailyMed. (Updated August 26, 2020). Quinapril tablet. https://dailymed.nlm.nih.gov/dailymed/drugInfo.cfm?setid=1b5809a8-873d-44cb-af59-e0d8fc81b385

DailyMed. (Updated November 25, 2020). Spironolactone tablet. https://dailymed.nlm.nih.gov/dailymed/drugInfo.cfm?setid=fb66327e-8261-46ae-b39a-4fa79d520844

DailyMed. (Updated August 8, 2021). Valsartan tablet. https://dailymed.nlm.nih.gov/dailymed/drugInfo.cfm?setid=8478a05f-38fd-412d-af49-69a73a787c8f

DailyMed. (Updated August 6, 2016). Zaroxolyn-metolazone tablet. https://dailymed.nlm.nih.gov/dailymed/drugInfo.cfm?setid=58935d94-5bf1-4065-b8b5-ac61292436a7

Hajouli, S., & Ludhwani, D. (2022). Heart failure and ejection fraction. StatPearls. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/books/NBK553115/

Heidenreich, P. A., Bozkurt, B., Aguilar, D., Allen, L. A., Buin, J. J., Colvin, M. M., Deswal, A., Drazner, M. H., Dunlay, S. M., Evers, L. R., Fand, J. C., Fedson, S. E., Fonarow, G. C., Hayek, S. S., Hernandex, A. F., Khazanie, P., Kittleson, M. M., Lee, C. S., Link, M. S., & Yancy, C. W. (2022). 2022 AHA/ACC/HFSA guideline for the management of heart failure: A report of the American College of Cardiology/American Heart Association Joint Committee on Clinical Practice Guidelines. Circulation, 145(10), e895–e1032. https://www.ahajournals.org/doi/10.1161/CIR.0000000000001063#d1e5665

Malik, A., Brito, D., Vaqar, S., & Chhabra, L. (2022). Congestive heart failure. StatPearls. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/books/NBK430873/

Novack, M. L., & Zevitz, M. E. (2022). Natriuretic peptide B type test. StatPearls. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/books/NBK556136/

Shah, K. S., & Fang, J. C. (2022). Sodium-glucose cotransporter 2 inhibitors in heart failure. Annual Review of Pharmacology and Toxicology, 62, 109–120. https://doi:10.1146/annurev-pharmtox-052120-014725

Chapter 20 Anticoagulant, Antiplatelet, and Thrombolytic Drugs

American Stroke Association. (2021, June 17). Atherosclerosis and stroke. https://www.stroke.org/en/about-stroke/stroke-risk-factors/atherosclerosis-and-stroke

Ashorobi, D., Ameer, M. A., & Fernandez, R. (2022). Thrombosis. StatPearls. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/books/NBK538430/

Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. (2020, February 10). What is venous thromboembolism? https://www.cdc.gov/ncbddd/dvt/facts.html

DailyMed. (Updated September 13, 2022). Activase–alteplase kit. https://dailymed.nlm.nih.gov/dailymed/drugInfo.cfm?setid=c669f77c-fa48-478b-a14b-80b20a0139c2

DailyMed. (Updated June 30, 2019). Angiomax–bivalirudin injection. https://dailymed.nlm.nih.gov/dailymed/drugInfo.cfm?setid=5f133813-f74e-4508-bc64-debbf104ff1e

DailyMed. (Updated June 15, 2021). Apixaban tablet. https://dailymed.nlm.nih.gov/dailymed/drugInfo.cfm?setid=095a08ac-cf0e-497e-a682-ddef38d6b29c

DailyMed. (Updated November 7, 2022). Argatroban injection. https://dailymed.nlm.nih.gov/dailymed/drugInfo.cfm?setid=46cdf9e6-839c-49c8-9ee1-c30cfdd9368d

DailyMed. (Updated October 18, 2022). Aspirin 81-aspirin tablet. https://dailymed.nlm.nih.gov/dailymed/drugInfo.cfm?setid=bfc4fd55-45db-41f4-b878-a6b7155f0849

DailyMed. (Updated October 13, 2020). Cathflo activase–alteplase injection, powder for solution. https://dailymed.nlm.nih.gov/dailymed/drugInfo.cfm?setid=91ecdef2-95ff-42dd-a31c-c8a09cab3ad9

DailyMed. (Updated July 14, 2021). Eptifibatide injection. https://dailymed.nlm.nih.gov/dailymed/drugInfo.cfm?setid=f48ecd1e-a2c3-45d1-9e2e-d9a8fb71a770

DailyMed. (Updated September 16, 2023). Fragmin–dalteparin sodium injection. https://dailymed.nlm.nih.gov/dailymed/drugInfo.cfm?setid=23527b8b-9b28-4e6d-9751-33b143975ac7

DailyMed. (Updated September 13, 2021). Heparin sodium injection. https://dailymed.nlm.nih.gov/dailymed/drugInfo.cfm?setid=83a59e7d-63e9-4eb8-87f0-52039d6893a5

DailyMed. (Updated September 6, 2022). Kengreal-cangrelor injection, powder, lyophilized, for solution. https://dailymed.nlm.nih.gov/dailymed/drugInfo.cfm?setid=88b434fa-8891-4fd5-9d86-7ea64667c08f

DailyMed. (Updated January 11, 2022). Lovenox–enoxaparin sodium injection. https://dailymed.nlm.nih.gov/dailymed/drugInfo.cfm?setid=5017a927-2a24-4f27-89f9-27c805bf7d59

DailyMed. (Updated September 22, 2022). Plavix-clopidogrel tablet, film coated. https://dailymed.nlm.nih.gov/dailymed/drugInfo.cfm?setid=de8b0b67-eb25-4684-83b5-7ad785314227

DailyMed. (Updated November 28, 2023). Pradaxa–dabigatran etexilate mesylate capsule. https://dailymed.nlm.nih.gov/dailymed/drugInfo.cfm?setid=ba74e3cd-b06f-4145-b284-5fd6b84ff3c9

DailyMed. (Updated January 5, 2024). Prasugrel tablet, film coated. https://dailymed.nlm.nih.gov/dailymed/drugInfo.cfm?setid=cd6bf899-06b7-4f52-96c5-ffc94a7288ff

DailyMed. (Updated February 6, 2024). Savaysa–edoxaban tosylate tablet, film coated. https://dailymed.nlm.nih.gov/dailymed/drugInfo.cfm?setid=e77d3400-56ad-11e3-949a-0800200c9a66

DailyMed. (Updated July 21, 2020). Ticagrelor tablet. https://dailymed.nlm.nih.gov/dailymed/drugInfo.cfm?setid=7cee944f-e2ca-4fc8-bb97-f46ca28728c5

DailyMed. (Updated April 12, 2023). Tnkase–tenecteplase kit. https://dailymed.nlm.nih.gov/dailymed/drugInfo.cfm?setid=739a3c53-caf6-40d6-a6af-84ce733a948b

DailyMed. (Updated August 30, 2021). Warfarin sodium tablet. https://dailymed.nlm.nih.gov/dailymed/drugInfo.cfm?setid=0cbce382-9c88-4f58-ae0f-532a841e8f95

DailyMed. (Updated November 21, 2023). Xarelto–rivaroxaban tablet, film coated. https://dailymed.nlm.nih.gov/dailymed/drugInfo.cfm?setid=10db92f9-2300-4a80-836b-673e1ae91610

Hirsh, J., Anand, S. S., Halperin, J. L., Fuster, V., & American Heart Association. (2001). Guide to anticoagulant therapy: Heparin: A statement for healthcare professionals from the American Heart Association. Circulation, 103(24), 2994–3018. https://doi.org/10.1161/01.cir.103.24.2994)

Holmberg, M. T., Tornio, A., Neuvonen, A., Neuvonen, M., Backman, P. J., & Niemi, M. (2014). Grapefruit juice inhibits the metabolic activation of clopidogrel. Clinical Pharmacology and Therapeutics, 95(3), 307–313. https://doi.org/10.1038/clpt.2013.192

Institute for Safe Medication Practices. (2018, July 23). High-alert medications in the acute care settings. https://www.ismp.org/recommendations/high-alert-medications-acute-list

Jaff, M. R., McMurtry, M. S., Archer, S. L., Cushman, M., Goldenberg, N., Goldhaber, S. Z., Jenkins, J. S., Kline, J. A., Michaels, A. D., Thistlethwaite, P., Vedantham, S., White, R. J., & Zierler, B. K. (2011). Management of massive and submassive pulmonary embolism, iliofemoral deep vein thrombosis, and chronic thromboembolic pulmonary hypertension: A scientific statement from the American Heart Association. Circulation, 123(16), 1788–1830. https://doi.org/10.1161/CIR.0b013e318214914f

Kushner, A., West, W, Suheb, M., & Pillarisetty, L. (2022). Virchow triad. StatPearls. https://www.statpearls.com/point-of-care/31176

Linkins, L. A., Dans, A. L., Moores, L. K., Bona, R., Davidson, B. L., Schulman, S., & Crowther, M. (2012). Treatment and prevention of heparin-induced thrombocytopenia: Antithrombotic therapy and prevention of thrombosis. Chest, 141(2 Suppl), e495S–e530S. https://doi.org/10.1378/chest.11-2303

Mayo Clinic (n.d.) Heart attack. https://www.mayoclinic.org/diseases-conditions/heart-attack/symptoms-causes/syc-20373106

McLendon, K., Goyal, A., & Attia, M. (2023). Deep venous thrombosis risk factors. StatPearls. https://www.statpearls.com/point-of-care/20300

Parsons, C., Patel, S. I., Cha, S., Shen, W. K., Desai, S., Chamberlain, A. M., Luis, S. A., Aguilar, M. I., Demaerschalk, B. M., Mookadam, F., & Shamoun, F. (2017). CHA2DS2-VASc score: A predictor of thromboembolic events and mortality in patients with an implantable monitoring device without atrial fibrillation. Mayo Clinic Proceedings, 92(3), 360–369. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.mayocp.2016.10.008

Powers, W. J., Rabinstein, A. A., Ackerson, T., Adeoye, O. M., Bambakidis, N. C., Becker, K., Biller, J., Brown, M., Demaerschalk, B. M., Hoh, B., Jauch, E. C., Kidwell, C. S., Leslie-Mazwi, T. M., Ovbiagele, B., Scott, P. A., Sheth, K. N., Southerland, A. M., Summers, D. V., & Tirschwell, D. L. (2019). Guidelines for the early management of clients with acute ischemic stroke: 2019 Update to the 2018 guidelines for the early management of acute ischemic stroke: A guideline for healthcare professionals from the American Heart Association/American Stroke Association. Stroke, 50(12), e344–e418. https://doi.org/10.1161/STR.0000000000000211

Rountree, K. M., & Lopez, P. P. (2018). Partial thromboplastin time. StatPearls. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/books/NBK507772/

Chapter 21 Lipid-Lowering Drugs

American Heart Association. (2020, November 11). Prevention and treatment of high cholesterol (hyperlipidemia). https://www.heart.org/en/health-topics/cholesterol/prevention-and-treatment-of-high-cholesterol-hyperlipidemia

Bornfeldt, K. (2021). Triglyceride lowering by omega-3 fatty acids: A mechanism mediated by N-acyl taurines. The Journal of Clinical Investigation, 131 (6), https://doi.org/10.1172/JCI147558

Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. (2020).Familial hypercholesterolemia. https://www.cdc.gov/genomics/disease/fh/FH.htm

Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. (2023a).About high cholesterol. https://www.cdc.gov/cholesterol/about.htm#optimal

Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. (2023b). Heart disease. National Center for Health Statistics. https://www.cdc.gov/nchs/fastats/heart-disease.htm

Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. (2023c). Prevent heart disease. https://www.cdc.gov/heartdisease/prevention.htm

Choudhary, A., Rawat, U., Kumar, P.,& Mittal, P.(2023). Pleotropic effects of statins: The dilemma of wider utilization of statin.The Egyptian Heart Journal, 75(1), 1. https://doi.org/10.1186/s43044-023-00327-8

DailyMed. (Updated May 12, 2023). Atorvastatin calcium tablet. https://www.dailymed.nlm.nih.gov/dailymed/drugInfo.cfm?setid=652f77a0-2145-896d-c760-e99e87507161

DailyMed. (Updated November 16, 2022). Colestid—Colestipol hydrochloride granule, for suspension. https://www.dailymed.nlm.nih.gov/dailymed/drugInfo.cfm?setid=21b37725-fc0c-4365-a7dc-1a473d42502d

DailyMed. (Updated July 27, 2023). Crestor—Rosuvastatin calcium tablet, film coated. https://www.dailymed.nlm.nih.gov/dailymed/drugInfo.cfm?setid=bb0f3b5e-4bc6-41c9-66b9-6257e2513512

DailyMed. (Updated November 24, 2023). Icosapent ethyl capsule. https://dailymed.nlm.nih.gov/dailymed/drugInfo.cfm?setid=fd2b5373-1ddd-46c0-a579-d5a4f289d79f

DailyMed. (Updated October 31, 2012). Lescol XL—Fluvastatin sodium tablet extended release. https://www.dailymed.nlm.nih.gov/dailymed/drugInfo.cfm?setid=cd12fae6-f277-4679-a7a8-b98719fe6fa9

DailyMed. (Updated July 7, 2023). Leqvio—Inclisiran injection, solution. https://www.dailymed.nlm.nih.gov/dailymed/drugInfo.cfm?setid=6fc0afca-4513-4c35-b594-6544aee29a44

DailyMed. (Updated December 1, 2022). Livalo—Pitavastatin calcium tablet, film coated. https://www.dailymed.nlm.nih.gov/dailymed/drugInfo.cfm?setid=44dcbf97-99ec-427c-ba50-207e0069d6d2

DailyMed. (Updated August 31, 2023). Lopid—Gemfibrozil tablet, film coated. https://www.dailymed.nlm.nih.gov/dailymed/drugInfo.cfm?setid=c48855b7-215e-453b-b3b1-a0f9dee7221f

DailyMed. (Updated December 8, 2023). Nexletol-bempedoic acid tablet, film coated. https://www.dailymed.nlm.nih.gov/dailymed/drugInfo.cfm?setid=88d06d89-a3da-40b4-b273-8f4f7d56c4c9

DailyMed. (Updated April 7, 2021). Niacin tablet. https://www.dailymed.nlm.nih.gov/dailymed/drugInfo.cfm?setid=5fceeb58-e54d-43c1-8abb-33feea69d663

DailyMed. (Updated April 1, 2021). Praluent—Alirocumab injection, solution. https://www.dailymed.nlm.nih.gov/dailymed/search.cfm?labeltype=all&query=praluent

DailyMed. (Updated November 10, 2022). Pravastatin sodium tablet. https://www.dailymed.nlm.nih.gov/dailymed/drugInfo.cfm?setid=6c011348-a236-47d3-bbef-3e0b956dd080

DailyMed. (Updated November 1, 2019). Questran—Cholestyramine powder, for suspension. https://www.dailymed.nlm.nih.gov/dailymed/drugInfo.cfm?setid=362ddd91-a63f-4ec6-841a-75785dd208c8

DailyMed. (Updated June 7, 2023). Repatha—Evolocumab injection, solution. https://www.dailymed.nlm.nih.gov/dailymed/drugInfo.cfm?setid=709338ae-ab8f-44a9-b7d5-abaabec3493a

DailyMed. (Updated June 1, 2021). Tricor—Fenofibrate tablet. https://www.dailymed.nlm.nih.gov/dailymed/drugInfo.cfm?setid=b693e68d-f812-4993-54b6-852e3517c344

DailyMed. (Updated September 7, 2022). Welchol—Colesevelam hydrochloride tablet, film coated. https://www.dailymed.nlm.nih.gov/dailymed/drugInfo.cfm?setid=89cbd0a3-2d1b-41db-8c97-35ec67b7b09f

DailyMed. (Updated July 20, 2023). Zetia—Ezetimibe tablet. https://www.dailymed.nlm.nih.gov/dailymed/drugInfo.cfm?setid=174e45e0-45bb-48b7-9e60-8f6cfc1d22bb

DailyMed. (Updated August 9, 2023). Zocor—Simvastatin tablet, film coated. https://www.dailymed.nlm.nih.gov/dailymed/drugInfo.cfm?setid=8f55d5de-5a4f-4a39-8c84-c53976dd6af9

Friedewald, W. T., Levy, R. I., & Fredrickson, D. S. (1972). Estimation of the concentration of low-density lipoprotein cholesterol in plasma, without use of the preparative ultracentrifuge.Clinical Chemistry,18(6), 499–502.

Grundy, S. M., Stone, N. J., Bailey, A. L., Beam, C., Birtcher, K. K., Blumenthal, R. S., Braun, L. T., de Ferranti, S., Faiella-Tommasino, J., Forman, D. E., Goldberg, R., Heidenreich, P. A., Hlatky, M. A., Jones, D. W., Lloyd-Jones, D., Lopez-Pajares, N., Ndumele, C. E., Orringer, C. E., Peralta, C. A., … Yeboah, J. (2019). 2018 AHA/ACC/AACVPR/AAPA/ABC/ACPM/ADA/AGS/APhA/ASPC/NLA/PCNA guideline on the management of blood cholesterol: A report of the American College of Cardiology/American Heart Association TaskForceonClinical Practice Guidelines.Journal of the American College of Cardiology,73(24), e285–e350. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jacc.2018.11.002

Masood, W., Annamaraju, P., & Uppaluri, K. R. (2022). Ketogenic diet. StatPearls. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/books/NBK499830/

National Institutes of Health. (2022). Niacin: Fact sheet for health professionals. https://ods.od.nih.gov/factsheets/Niacin-HealthProfessional/#

Singh, G., & Correa, R. (2023).Fibrate medications. StatPearls. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/books/NBK547756/

Tsao, C. W., Aday, A. W., Almarzooq, Z. I., Alonso, A., Beaton, A. Z., Bittencourt, M. S., Boehme, A. K., Buxton, A. E., Carson, A. P., Commodore-Mensah, Y., Elkind, M. S. V., Evenson, K. R., Eze-Nliam, C., Ferguson, J. F., Generoso, G., Ho, J. E., Kalani, R., Khan, S. S., Kissela, B. M., … Martin, S. S. (2022). Heart disease and stroke statistics—2022 update: A report from the American Heart Association.Circulation,145(8), e153–e639. https://doi.org/10.1161/CIR.0000000000001052

Wiggins, B. S., Saseen, J. J., Page, R. L., 2nd, Reed, B. N., Sneed, K., Kostis, J. B., Lanfear, D., Virani, S., Morris, P. B., & American Heart Association Clinical Pharmacology Committee of the Council on Clinical Cardiology; Council on Hypertension; Council on Quality of Care and Outcomes Research; and Council on Functional Genomics and Translational Biology. (2016). Recommendations for management of clinically significant drug–drug interactions with statins and select agents used in patients with cardiovascular disease: A scientific statement from the American Heart Association.Circulation,134(21), e468–e495. https://doi.org/10.1161/CIR.0000000000000456

Chapter 22 Cardiac Emergency and Shock Drugs

Al-Khatib, S. M., Stevenson, W. G., Ackerman, M. J., Bryant, W. J., Callans, D. J., Curtis, A. B., Deal, B. J., Dickfield, T., Field, M. E., Fonorow, G. C., Gillis, A. M., Granger, C. B., Hammill, S. C., Hlatky, M. A., Joglar, J. A., Kay, G. N., Matlock, D. D., Myerburg, R. J., & Page, R. L. (2018). 2017 AHA/ACC/HRS guideline for management of patients with ventricular arrhythmias and the prevention of sudden cardiac death. Circulation, 138(13), e272–e391. https://www.ahajournals.org/doi/10.1161/CIR.0000000000000549

Beecham, G. B., Nessel, T. A., & Goyal, A. (2022). Lidocaine. StatPearls. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/books/NBK539881/

DailyMed. (Updated December 4, 2017). Adenosine injection. https://dailymed.nlm.nih.gov/dailymed/drugInfo.cfm?setid=ab2edabd-e57d-4754-9822-93bd17af9e88

DailyMed. (Updated December 20, 2023). Albuterol sulfate inhalation solution-albuterol sulfate solution. https://dailymed.nlm.nih.gov/dailymed/drugInfo.cfm?setid=d4c532be-1f41-60d3-e053-2995a90a98be

DailyMed. (Updated January 30, 2023). Amiodarone hydrochloride-amiodarone hydrochloride injection, solution. https://dailymed.nlm.nih.gov/dailymed/drugInfo.cfm?setid=d8d04647-8e25-4127-8ecf-360ce1991c2f

DailyMed. (Updated September 21, 2019). Aspirin 325 mg-aspirin tablet. https://dailymed.nlm.nih.gov/dailymed/drugInfo.cfm?setid=73e74c1c-a556-4d2b-a15e-fd2786ea057d

DailyMed. (Updated December 13, 2023). Atropine sulfate injection. https://dailymed.nlm.nih.gov/dailymed/drugInfo.cfm?setid=c82cb295-ffce-47d6-97ad-a8aa723f4e4f

DailyMed. (Updated January 19, 2023). Diltiazem HCl injection. https://dailymed.nlm.nih.gov/dailymed/drugInfo.cfm?setid=7d8e8b1e-f67b-57d2-e053-2991aa0a8d12

DailyMed (Updated February 28, 2023). Dobutamine injection. https://dailymed.nlm.nih.gov/dailymed/drugInfo.cfm?setid=ee09a55f-9992-48bb-b8d6-1184bd548536

DailyMed. (Updated May 6, 2022). Dopamine hydrochloride injection. https://dailymed.nlm.nih.gov/dailymed/drugInfo.cfm?setid=0e499952-46c7-4172-8c70-186312e240a3

DailyMed. (Updated December 13, 2021). Epinephrine injection. https://dailymed.nlm.nih.gov/dailymed/drugInfo.cfm?setid=353f2d30-4b74-43eb-a2ff-26d593d283f8

DailyMed. (Updated September 14, 2021). Epinephrine injection, solution, concentrate. https://dailymed.nlm.nih.gov/dailymed/drugInfo.cfm?setid=e51c9ca2-6057-4830-9dcc-e8c7491f861b

DailyMed. (Updated August 5, 2022). Lidocaine-lidocaine hydrochloride injection, solution. https://dailymed.nlm.nih.gov/dailymed/lookup.cfm?setid=f1b26274-a55e-4321-b96c-ce0df830f205#a0cfee04-8b5e-4a4b-82ce-a36a925ac3c8

DailyMed. (Updated March 30, 2023). Morphine sulfate injection, solution. https://dailymed.nlm.nih.gov/dailymed/drugInfo.cfm?setid=be420e8b-bcb0-49b5-bb4d-1df8b9959809

DailyMed. (Updated August 22, 2016). Nitroglycerin in dextrose-nitroglycerin injection. https://dailymed.nlm.nih.gov/dailymed/drugInfo.cfm?setid=457a026c-ebce-4701-9deb-2d7652759a99

DailyMed. (Updated September 12, 2022). Nitroglycerin tablet. https://dailymed.nlm.nih.gov/dailymed/drugInfo.cfm?setid=d6df0d74-9c72-0bfd-aab8-b4967ef46c54

DailyMed. (Updated November 21, 2023). Norepinephrine bitartrate injection, solution. https://dailymed.nlm.nih.gov/dailymed/drugInfo.cfm?setid=6363e9b4-29df-4553-904d-a563e5adda6e

DailyMed. (Updated April 24, 2023). Procainamide HCl injection, solution. https://dailymed.nlm.nih.gov/dailymed/drugInfo.cfm?setid=9508d1a2-da9a-5480-e053-2a95a90a73c7

Dalal, R., & Grujic, D. (2022). Epinephrine. StatPearls. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/books/NBK482160/

Florek, J. B., & Girsadas, D. (2022). Amiodarone. StatPearls. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/books/NBK482154/

Hermiz, C., & Sedhai, Y. R. (2023). Angina. StatPearls. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/books/NBK557672/

Hofmann, R., James, S. K., Jernberg, T., Lindahl, B., Erlinge, D., Witt, N., Arefalk, G., Frick, M., Alfredsson, J., Nilsson, L., Ravn-Fischer, A., & Omerovic, E. (2017). Oxygen therapy in suspected acute myocardial infarction. New England Journal of Medicine, 377(13), 1240–1249. https://www.nejm.org/doi/full/10.1056/nejmoa1706222

Johnson, D., Merrell, B., & Bounds, C. (2023). Albuterol. StatPearls. https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/29489143/

Klabunde, R. (2022). Class I antiarrhythmics (sodium-channel blockers). Cardiovascular Pharmacology Concepts. https://cvpharmacology.com/antiarrhy/sodium-blockers

McLendon, K., & Preuss, C. V. (2022). Atropine. StatPearls. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/books/NBK470551/

McLendon, K., & Sternard, B. T. (2022). Anaphylaxis. StatPearls. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/books/NBK482124/

Pritchard, B., & Thompson, H. (2023). Procainamide. StatPearls. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/books/NBK557788/

Singh, S., & McKintosh, R. (2022). Adenosine. StatPearls. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/books/NBK519049/

Smith, M. D., & Maani, C. V. (2022). Norepinephrine. StatPearls. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/books/NBK537259/

Sonne, J., Goyal, A., & Lopez-Ojeda, W. (2023). Dopamine. StatPearls. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/books/NBK535451/

Talreja, O., & Cassagnol, M. (2022). Diltiazem. StatPearls. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/books/NBK532937/

Chapter 23 Introduction to the Respiratory System

Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. (2021). Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). https://www.cdc.gov/copd/index.html

Cleveland Clinic. (2023). Respiratory system: Functions, facts, organs & anatomy. https://my.clevelandclinic.org/health/articles/21205-respiratory-system

Dezube, R. (2023, August 30). Exchanging oxygen and carbon dioxide: Lung and airway disorders. MSD Manual Consumer Version. https://www.msdmanuals.com/home/lung-and-airway-disorders/biology-of-the-lungs-and-airways/exchanging-oxygen-and-carbon-dioxide

Johns Hopkins Medicine. (2019, November 19). Chronic bronchitis. https://www.hopkinsmedicine.org/health/conditions-and-diseases/chronic-bronchitis

Johns Hopkins Medicine. (n.d.-a). Pharyngitis. https://www.hopkinsmedicine.org/health/conditions-and-diseases/pharyngitis

Johns Hopkins Medicine. (n.d.-b). Rhinitis. https://www.hopkinsmedicine.org/health/conditions-and-diseases/rhinitis

Johns Hopkins Medicine. (n.d.-c). Sinusitis. https://www.hopkinsmedicine.org/health/conditions-and-diseases/sinusitis

Landry, J. (2022, May 16).Ventilation vs. oxygenation vs. respiration. Respiratory Therapy Zone. https://www.respiratorytherapyzone.com/ventilation-vs-oxygenation

Mayo Clinic. (n.d.-a).Asthma: Symptoms and causes. https://www.mayoclinic.org/diseases-conditions/asthma/symptoms-causes/syc-20369653

Mayo Clinic. (n.d.-b).Emphysema: Symptoms and causes. https://www.mayoclinic.org/diseases-conditions/emphysema/symptoms-causes/syc-203555550

NHS Inform. (2023, February 13). Laryngitis. https://www.nhsinform.scot/illnesses-and-conditions/ears-nose-and-throat/laryngitis

Visible Body. (2023). Breathing in and speaking out: How the structures of the upper respiratory system work. https://www.visiblebody.com/learn/respiratory/upper-respiratory-system

Chapter 24 Upper Respiratory Disorder Drugs

American Addiction Centers. (2023). Pseudoephedrine: Side effects, safety & uses of Sudafed. https://americanaddictioncenters.org/over-the-counter-medications/pseudoephedrine

Cleveland Clinic. (2021). Expectorant. https://my.clevelandclinic.org/health/drugs/22078-expectorant

Corren, J. (2017). Allergic rhinitis and conjunctivitis. Middleton’s Allergy Essentials (pp. 205–224). Elsevier. https://doi.org/10.1016/b978-0-323-37579-5.00008-8

DailyMed. (Updated August 21, 2019). Acetylcysteine inhalant. https://dailymed.nlm.nih.gov/dailymed/drugInfo.cfm?setid=f56b4087-db48-4fd7-84ec-9c927962b805

DailyMed. (Updated July 16, 2021). Acetylcysteine injection. https://dailymed.nlm.nih.gov/dailymed/drugInfo.cfm?setid=4505de2a-ef6f-4bb7-9845-1228afbe0a0e

DailyMed. (Updated July 13, 2021). Benzonatate capsule. https://dailymed.nlm.nih.gov/dailymed/drugInfo.cfm?setid=6de49806-eceb-4fc5-a90c-5d00c9025ae0

DailyMed. (Updated June 8, 2023). Brompheniramine maleate, dextromethorphan hydrobromide, and phenylephrine hydrochloride elixir. https://dailymed.nlm.nih.gov/dailymed/drugInfo.cfm?setid=cc09a8c5-d173-4261-b838-96e6a16e2ff9

DailyMed. (Updated May 19, 2023). Cetirizine hydrochloride tablet. https://dailymed.nlm.nih.gov/dailymed/drugInfo.cfm?setid=b165db38-b302-4220-8627-77cb07bb078c

DailyMed. (Updated March 29, 2023). Chlorpheniramine maleate tablet. https://dailymed.nlm.nih.gov/dailymed/drugInfo.cfm?setid=31dec627-f2e4-6dbe-e05400144ff8d46c&audience=consumer

DailyMed. (Updated November 16, 2022). Codeine guaifenesin solution. https://dailymed.nlm.nih.gov/dailymed/drugInfo.cfm?setid=fe126254-6ee6-48c3-965c-96e4276a5314

DailyMed. (Updated December 14, 2010). Desloratadine tablet. https://dailymed.nlm.nih.gov/dailymed/drugInfo.cfm?setid=4b546121-ef6b-458c-ae0c-ce5bba3dc9a3

DailyMed. (Updated July 14, 2022). Diphenhydramine hydrochloride tablet. https://dailymed.nlm.nih.gov/dailymed/drugInfo.cfm?setid=1d026ead-c3de-4dc6-9d3c-5a603f6dde4e

DailyMed. (Updated October 21, 2020). Dornase alfa solution. https://dailymed.nlm.nih.gov/dailymed/drugInfo.cfm?setid=d8c78a7e-ff99-48f3-8952-643ec2ea0f86

DailyMed. (Updated February 26, 2023). Fexofenadine tablet. https://dailymed.nlm.nih.gov/dailymed/drugInfo.cfm?setid=08023b99-0634-4ac9-afd6-4f2d2e0d2c8a

DailyMed. (Updated October 21, 2023). Guaifenesin 200 mg-guaifenesin tablet. https://dailymed.nlm.nih.gov/dailymed/drugInfo.cfm?setid=d6aa1493-bc22-a318-e053-2995a90a6381

DailyMed. (Updated January 5, 2011). Levocetirizine tablet. https://dailymed.nlm.nih.gov/dailymed/drugInfo.cfm?setid=8d416349-161d-4232-b6b4-e75214ea4841

DailyMed. (Updated December 1, 2009). Loratadine tablet. https://dailymed.nlm.nih.gov/dailymed/drugInfo.cfm?setid=7a2f0eef-7803-497d-926c-a6163a89eb56

DailyMed. (Updated January 3, 2023). Nasal decongestant D-pseudoephedrine hcl tablet, film coated. https://dailymed.nlm.nih.gov/dailymed/drugInfo.cfm?setid=c3b5d9f7-3e4d-4b27-ac34-3192d21ee2e2

DailyMed. (Updated October 14, 2015). Oxymetazoline nasal solution spray. https://dailymed.nlm.nih.gov/dailymed/drugInfo.cfm?setid=4e1f4180-5cf8-48a0-a01f-77cd4574e2a9

DailyMed (Updated February 9, 2023). Phenylephrine HCL maximum strength-phenylephrine hcl tablet, film coated. https://dailymed.nlm.nih.gov/dailymed/drugInfo.cfm?setid=953cad64-d587-4f25-a04f-fee2edf9ebb2

DailyMed (Updated November 3, 2022). Pseudoephedrine tablet. https://dailymed.nlm.nih.gov/dailymed/drugInfo.cfm?setid=1056d9da-8a3f-4b7a-878e-7f8d45d298cd

DailyMed. (Updated July 20, 2023). Robitussin direct cough-dextromethorphan hydrobromide capsule, liquid filled. https://dailymed.nlm.nih.gov/dailymed/drugInfo.cfm?setid=70c9556b-063a-4fb3-96f6-1d4ffa495ed4

Fowler, P. (2022). Histamines: What they do, and how they can overreact. WebMD. https://www.webmd.com/allergies/what-are-histamines

Johnson and Johnson. (2023). What are antihistamines and how do they work? ZYRTEC. https://www.zyrtec.com/allergy-guide/understanding-allergies/treatment/what-are-antihistamines

MedlinePlus. (2017). Benzonatate. https://medlineplus.gov/druginfo/meds/a682640.html

MedlinePlus. (2018). Pseudoephedrine. https://medlineplus.gov/druginfo/meds/a682619.html

MedlinePlus. (2022). Loratadine. https://medlineplus.gov/druginfo/meds/a697038.html

MedlinePlus. (2023). Codeine. https://medlineplus.gov/druginfo/meds/a682065.html

MyHealth.Alberta.ca Network. (2022). Decongestants. https://myhealth.alberta.ca/Health/Pages/conditions.aspx?hwid=sig48021

Naqvi, A., & Gerriets, V. (2023). Cetirizine. StatPearls. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/books/NBK549776/

NHS. (2021). Fexofenadine. https://www.nhs.uk/medicines/fexofenadine/

Nurselabs. (2023). Antitussives. https://nurseslabs.com/antitussives/

Ricciardi, L., Furci, F., & Stefania, I. (2019). H1-antihistamines for allergic diseases: Old aged but not old-fashioned drugs. International Journal of Allergy Medications, 5, 37. doi.org/10.23937/2572-3308.1510037

Sakur, A. A., Nashed, D., & Noureldin, I. (2022). Green potentiometric determination of some of the third-generation antihistamines: Fexofenadine, desloratadine, and levocetirizine by using new carbon paste electrodes. Talanta Open, 5, 100116. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.talo.2022.100116

Sicari, V., & Zabbo, C. P. (2023). Diphenhydramine. StatPearls. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/books/NBK526010

Sison, G. (2022). Antitussives: Uses, common brands, and safety info. Single Care. https://www.singlecare.com/drug-classes/antitussives

Chapter 25 Lower Respiratory Disorder Drugs

Cleveland Clinic. (2023a). Corticosteroids. https://my.clevelandclinic.org/health/drugs/4812-corticosteroids

Cleveland Clinic. (2023b). Leukotriene modifiers: Treatment & definition. https://my.clevelandclinic.org/health/drugs/14278-leukotriene-modifiers

Cunha, J. (2021, September 9). Theophylline: Generic, uses, side effects, dosages, interactions, warnings. RxList. https://www.rxlist.com/theophylline/generic-drug.htm

DailyMed. (Updated January 1, 2023). Albuterol sulfate aerosol, metered. https://dailymed.nlm.nih.gov/dailymed/drugInfo.cfm?setid=6c64ab5d-f8a2-440a-a929-cb8188d0e8b4

DailyMed. (Updated August 27, 2023). Aminophylline, injection, solution. https://dailymed.nlm.nih.gov/dailymed/drugInfo.cfm?setid=9a663ef3-881f-48bd-2689-3713b24545c2

DailyMed. (Updated October 5, 2023). Atrovent HFA – ipratropium bromide aerosol, metered. https://dailymed.nlm.nih.gov/dailymed/drugInfo.cfm?setid=170e98ef-5560-4068-be7d-e649068eb884

DailyMed. (Updated February 4, 2023). Pulmicort flexhaler-budesonide aerosol, powder. https://dailymed.nlm.nih.gov/dailymed/drugInfo.cfm?setid=79fc8cf4-bb33-4892-9dd2-641d7e943a01

DailyMed. (Updated May 4, 2022). Cromolyn sodium – inhalant. https://dailymed.nlm.nih.gov/dailymed/drugInfo.cfm?setid=aebec664-ed80-447c-9789-0cf47c8b7429

DailyMed. (Updated March 23, 2022). Ephedrine hydrochloride tablet. https://dailymed.nlm.nih.gov/dailymed/drugInfo.cfm?setid=bcb81dc1-d854-30c0-e053-2a95a90a9fc7

DailyMed. (Updated July 10, 2018). Epinephrine – adrenalinum liquid. https://dailymed.nlm.nih.gov/dailymed/drugInfo.cfm?setid=89fefa8e-dbad-4150-858e-c14d1f31abbf

DailyMed. (Updated September 19, 2023). Flovent HFA-fluticasone propionate spray, metered. https://dailymed.nlm.nih.gov/dailymed/drugInfo.cfm?setid=b49ed7c1-123e-4b1d-fea6-0c6839fd9d6a

DailyMed. (Updated October 4, 2022). Ipratropium bromide solution. https://dailymed.nlm.nih.gov/dailymed/drugInfo.cfm?setid=8927f392-4c88-4ac1-a934-c444ecf6b2c8

DailyMed. (Updated October 31, 2023). Levalbuterol-levalbuterol solution. https://dailymed.nlm.nih.gov/dailymed/drugInfo.cfm?setid=5f1c4f22-d420-495c-8f64-33532638215f

Daily Med. (Updated February 9, 2023). Methylprednisolone. https://dailymed.nlm.nih.gov/dailymed/lookup.cfm?setid=7e38b09c-da41-4ee3-8f99-812d3276d551

DailyMed. (Updated July 10, 2022). Methylprednisolone acetate injection, suspension. https://dailymed.nlm.nih.gov/dailymed/drugInfo.cfm?setid=de12f38c-ffa1-4d62-b9cb-238a263f6fea

DailyMed. (Updated December 26, 2022). Methylprednisolone tablet. https://dailymed.nlm.nih.gov/dailymed/drugInfo.cfm?setid=bf3e59c2-c080-48c0-8910-5fdba1ec7dd6

DailyMed. (Updated June 21, 2021). Montelukast tablet, film coated. https://dailymed.nlm.nih.gov/dailymed/drugInfo.cfm?setid=97a682c2-7e00-4d07-a5ac-4436c977f842

DailyMed. (Updated January 31, 2018). Prednisone tablet. https://dailymed.nlm.nih.gov/dailymed/drugInfo.cfm?setid=e9d6774e-45f6-419f-b388-8dfb4dd34944

DailyMed. (Updated September 27, 2022). QVAR Redihaler – beclomethasone dipropionate HFA aerosol, metered. https://dailymed.nlm.nih.gov/dailymed/drugInfo.cfm?setid=cada897a-264e-450d-ae00-36e7fe747080

DailyMed. (Updated September 27, 2012). Serevent diskus – salmeterol xinafoate powder, metered. https://dailymed.nlm.nih.gov/dailymed/drugInfo.cfm?setid=c4925b2c-bde1-45fd-8109-dc75bee3b7a3

DailyMed. (Updated October 2, 2023). Spiriva Respimat – tiotropium bromide inhalation spray, metered. https://dailymed.nlm.nih.gov/dailymed/drugInfo.cfm?setid=7b656b14-fcaa-2741-f6f0-e0be48971c02

DailyMed. (Updated October 5, 2023). Theophylline solution. https://dailymed.nlm.nih.gov/dailymed/drugInfo.cfm?setid=1b685384-5d96-46fa-b93b-e96538a2cfe7

DailyMed. (Updated November 25, 2018). Zafirlukast tablet, coated. https://dailymed.nlm.nih.gov/dailymed/drugInfo.cfm?setid=0262e192-94f4-423d-a58e-bb374dc106fe

DailyMed. (Updated August 23, 2022). Zileuton tablet, multilayer, extended release. https://dailymed.nlm.nih.gov/dailymed/drugInfo.cfm?setid=2d3d8cd1-e1a5-4a2e-a09d-9420b0168922

Dalal, R., & Grujic, D. (2023). Epinephrine.StatPearls. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/books/NBK482160/

Drugbank Online. (2023). Ephedrine. https://go.drugbank.com/drugs/DB01364

Farzam, K., Kidron, A., & Lakhkar, A. D. (2022). Adrenergic drugs.StatPearls. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/books/NBK534230/

Hsu, E., & Bajaj, T. (2023, June 20). Beta2-Agonists. Stat Pearls. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/books/NBK542249/

Khan, S. (2021, October 22). Xanthine derivatives: Drug class, uses, side effects, drug names. RxList. https://www.rxlist.com/how_do_xanthine_derivatives_work/drug-class.htm

Martinez-Pitre, J., Sabulla, B. R., & Cascella, M. (2023). Restrictive lung disease. StatPearls. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/books/NBK560880/

Science Direct. (2019). Mast cell stabilizer. https://www.sciencedirect.com/topics/nursing-and-health-professions/mast-cell-stabilizer

Widysanto, A., & Mathew, G. (2022). Chronic bronchitis. StatPearls. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/books/NBK482437/

Williams, D. M. (2018). Clinical pharmacology of corticosteroids. Respiratory Care, 63(6), 655–670. https://rc.rcjournal.com/content/63/6/655

Chapter 26 Hypothalamus, Pituitary, and Adrenal Disorder Drugs

Alatzoglou, K. S., Gregory, L. C., & Dattani, M. T. (2020). Development of the pituitary gland.Comprehensive Physiology,10(2), 389–413. https://doi.org/10.1002/cphy.c150043

Christ-Crain, M., & Gaisl, O. (2021). Diabetes insipidus.Presse Medicale (Paris, France: 1983),50(4), 104093. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.lpm.2021.104093

DailyMed. (Updated September, 18, 2023). Aldactone-spironolactone tablet, film coated. https://dailymed.nlm.nih.gov/dailymed/drugInfo.cfm?setid=0fed2822-3a03-4b64-9857-c682fcd462bc

DailyMed. (Updated May 19, 2023). Betamethasone injection. https://dailymed.nlm.nih.gov/dailymed/drugInfo.cfm?setid=024cd444-04e2-441a-9863-9e5db741e657

DailyMed. (Updated October 13, 2021). Bromocriptine mesylate capsule. https://dailymed.nlm.nih.gov/dailymed/drugInfo.cfm?setid=72d8eefe-c066-41b6-8922-9586f1cf47a1

DailyMed. (Updated January 19, 2023). Cortisone acetate tablet. https://dailymed.nlm.nih.gov/dailymed/drugInfo.cfm?setid=cc158d11-f356-4696-8b73-5d2681dcbcf2

DailyMed. (Updated December 28, 2020). Demeclocycline hydrochloride-demeclocycline tablet. https://dailymed.nlm.nih.gov/dailymed/drugInfo.cfm?setid=4ff23e3b-e111-47fd-9776-1d89d6da049b

DailyMed. (Updated November 30, 2019). Desmopressin acetate injection. https://dailymed.nlm.nih.gov/dailymed/drugInfo.cfm?setid=15179e0c-f677-307f-d1e1-5910de4c212f

DailyMed. (Updated June 9, 2023). Desmopressin acetate spray. https://dailymed.nlm.nih.gov/dailymed/drugInfo.cfm?setid=1ac423b8-27a6-4cef-4a82-c50bf81b4f49

DailyMed. (Updated November 6, 2019). Dexamethasone sodium phophate injection. https://dailymed.nlm.nih.gov/dailymed/drugInfo.cfm?setid=d54a27f2-2af8-4f86-a7fd-453f6b1a9997

DailyMed. (Updated November 22, 2022). Dexamethasone 1.5 mg tablet. https://dailymed.nlm.nih.gov/dailymed/drugInfo.cfm?setid=7b997c26-e6a3-403c-93fb-b1290cf5dbad

DailyMed. (Updated January 11, 2023). Fludrocortisone acetate tablet. https://dailymed.nlm.nih.gov/dailymed/drugInfo.cfm?setid=51363453-6d33-4aee-8426-37ac0bf3cc10

DailyMed. (Updated September 27, 2023). Hydrocortisone cream-hydrocortisone cream. https://dailymed.nlm.nih.gov/dailymed/drugInfo.cfm?setid=d57a59fb-c8f2-f73b-e053-2995a90a4cdb

DailyMed. (Updated September 1, 2023). Lanreotide acetate injection. https://dailymed.nlm.nih.gov/dailymed/drugInfo.cfm?setid=11da176a-99bc-4ada-8b3f-6bd2b37a6313

DailyMed. (Updated July 28, 2022). Methylprednisolone acetate injection, suspension. https://dailymed.nlm.nih.gov/dailymed/drugInfo.cfm?setid=d944240d-2c19-46ba-ad4f-3fbee7b8629c

DailyMed. (Updated December 13, 2021). Millipred prednisolone tablet. https://dailymed.nlm.nih.gov/dailymed/drugInfo.cfm?setid=b9a97cfa-53a3-4080-98da-7cca8ba1e0fb

DailyMed. (Updated November 22, 2022). Octreotide acetate injection, solution. https://dailymed.nlm.nih.gov/dailymed/drugInfo.cfm?setid=ffaf9462-cdd8-433b-8b03-464a35577fe9

DailyMed. (Updated September 1, 2021). Prednisone tablet prednisone-prednisone tablet. https://dailymed.nlm.nih.gov/dailymed/drugInfo.cfm?setid=931ceb82-23b9-46c6-a00b-4cd66ed6f88f

DailyMed. (Updated October 1, 2019). Proctocort-hydrocortisone cream. https://dailymed.nlm.nih.gov/dailymed/drugInfo.cfm?setid=8c318d15-30e4-4395-9aa9-4157d349fe70

DailyMed. (Updated August 19, 2021). Solu-Cortef hydrocortisone sodium succinate injection, powder, for solution. https://dailymed.nlm.nih.gov/dailymed/drugInfo.cfm?setid=65eefd58-b166-4d71-ade6-45c8fdf86922

DailyMed. (Updated November 18, 2021). Somavert (pegvisomant) kit. https://dailymed.nlm.nih.gov/dailymed/drugInfo.cfm?setid=3cbb485b-6df1-49ce-8747-592b395b1988

DailyMed. (Updated December 20, 2022). Tolvaptan tablet. https://dailymed.nlm.nih.gov/dailymed/drugInfo.cfm?setid=d9fd11d0-4269-12fb-95cf-b3c11d75e479

DailyMed. (Updated January 20, 2023). Vasopressin injection. https://dailymed.nlm.nih.gov/dailymed/drugInfo.cfm?setid=d9869345-b02c-4225-a97b-656f14c86dec

Hodgens, A., & Sharman, T. (2023). Corticosteroids. StatPearls. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/books/NBK554612/

Huecker, M. R., Bhutta, B. S., & Dominique, E. (2023). Adrenal insufficiency. StatPearls. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/books/NBK441832/

Mentrasti, G., Scortichini, L., Torniai, M., Giampieri, R., Morgese, F., Rinaldi, S., & Berardi, R. (2020). Syndrome of inappropriate antidiuretic hormone secretion (SIADH): Optimal management.Therapeutics and Clinical Risk Management,16, 663–672. https://doi.org/10.2147/TCRM.S206066

National Institutes of Health. (2017). About adrenal gland disorders. https://www.nichd.nih.gov/health/topics/adrenalgland/conditioninfo

Shahid, Z., Asuka, E., & Singh, G. (2022). Physiology, hypothalamus. StatPearls. https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/30571001/

Yasir, M., & Mechanic, O. J. (2023). Syndrome of inappropriate antidiuretic hormone secretion. StatPearls. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/books/NBK507777/

Chapter 27 Thyroid and Parathyroid Disorder Drugs

American Board of Internal Medicine. (2023). ABIM laboratory test reference ranges - July 2023. https://www.abim.org/Media/bfijryql/laboratory-reference-ranges.pdf

Armstrong, M., Asuka, E., & Fingeret, A. (2022). Physiology, thyroid function. National Library of Medicine: National Center for Biotechnology Information. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/books/NBK537039/

Chauhan, K., Shahrokhi, M., & Huecker, M. R. (2022). Vitamin D. National Library of Medicine: National Center for Biotechnology Information. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/books/NBK441912/

DailyMed. (Updated November 12, 2023). Alendronate-alendronate sodium tablet. https://dailymed.nlm.nih.gov/dailymed/drugInfo.cfm?setid=a24fd39c-34a7-4de2-9439-781e612189ca

DailyMed. (Updated October 14, 2020). Antacid regular strength-calcium carbonate 500mg tablet, chewable. https://dailymed.nlm.nih.gov/dailymed/drugInfo.cfm

DailyMed. (Updated January 10, 2023). Calcitonin salmon injection, solution. https://dailymed.nlm.nih.gov/dailymed/drugInfo.cfm?setid=7d4507aa-8e10-44a6-bc6e-3176aa8b23cc

DailyMed. (Updated December 18, 2023). Calcitriol capsule. https://dailymed.nlm.nih.gov/dailymed/drugInfo.cfm?setid=b1fef137-63c5-4662-8cd9-b9e8b12bacb6

DailyMed. (Updated July 28, 2023). Calcium acetate tablet. https://dailymed.nlm.nih.gov/dailymed/drugInfo.cfm?setid=ac4975aa-0ee9-4473-81e2-839f1556e684

DailyMed. (Updated June 7, 2023). Calcium chloride-alcium chloride injection, solution. https://dailymed.nlm.nih.gov/dailymed/drugInfo.cfm?setid=90b8936e-61f2-5318-e053-2995a90aac44

DailyMed. (Updated June 28, 2023). Calcium gluconate-calcium gluconate injection, solution. https://dailymed.nlm.nih.gov/dailymed/drugInfo.cfm?setid=8b77c3d2-992d-4261-8421-9cfd07328fbf

DailyMed. (Updated December 1, 2021). Cinacalcet-cinacalcet hydrochloride tablet. https://dailymed.nlm.nih.gov/dailymed/drugInfo.cfm?setid=d6a4cf57-653b-4d75-9470-c572b3c26e96

DailyMed. (Updated January 24, 2023). Ergocalciferol capsule. https://dailymed.nlm.nih.gov/dailymed/drugInfo.cfm?setid=87e80b1f-e376-45ba-825b-a6fda4b82325

DailyMed. (Updated September 12, 2022). Ibandronate sodium injection. https://dailymed.nlm.nih.gov/dailymed/drugInfo.cfm?setid=9fad4982-95af-d711-f50a-867311835143

DailyMed. (Updated April 1, 2022). Ibandronate-sodium tablet. https://dailymed.nlm.nih.gov/dailymed/drugInfo.cfm?setid=acbc54fc-4248-416f-849c-2cd3bed0a843

DailyMed. (Updated November 27, 2023). Levothyroxine sodium capsule. https://dailymed.nlm.nih.gov/dailymed/drugInfo.cfm?setid=686ba2cf-7651-44de-9b4d-eeaaf2a0e364

DailyMed. (Updated January 30, 2021). Liothyronine sodium tablet. https://dailymed.nlm.nih.gov/dailymed/drugInfo.cfm?setid=4fb09346-3d30-4a7c-a97c-480d5924997a

DailyMed. (Updated December 12, 2022). Methimazole tablet. https://dailymed.nlm.nih.gov/dailymed/drugInfo.cfm?setid=5b25e346-11b6-44ed-89f9-ab927232ac19

DailyMed. (Updated November 19, 2021). Propylthiouracil tablet. https://dailymed.nlm.nih.gov/dailymed/drugInfo.cfm?setid=a57c49ae-d659-49fa-84e3-cf6d1f9e6f97

DailyMed. (Updated October 1, 2023). Risedronate sodium tablet, delayed release. https://dailymed.nlm.nih.gov/dailymed/drugInfo.cfm?setid=c89430be-15f1-4b8b-ab7e-738de716ee7d

DailyMed. (Updated March 22, 2022). Thyrosafe - potassium iodide tablet. https://dailymed.nlm.nih.gov/dailymed/drugInfo.cfm?setid=47762f8f-30e2-445d-aaa1-e04479f8dd5b

Eghtedari, B., & Correa, R. (2022). Levothyroxine. National Library of Medicine: National Center for Biotechnology Information. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/books/NBK539808/

Ganesan, K., Goyal, A., & Roane, D. (2022). Bisphosphonate. National Library of Medicine: National Center for Biotechnology Information. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/books/NBK470248/

Khan, M., Jose, A., & Sharma, S. (2022). Physiology, parathyroid hormone. StatPearls. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/books/NBK499940/

Lofrese, J. J., Basit, H., & Lappin, S. L. (2022). Physiology, parathyroid. National Library of Medicine: National Center for Biotechnology Information. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/books/NBK482510/

McLaughlin, M. B., & Jialal, I. (2022). Calcitonin. National Library of Medicine: National Center for Biotechnology Information. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/books/NBK537269/

National Institutes of Health, Office of Dietary Supplements. (2023). Calcium: Fact sheet for consumers. https://ods.od.nih.gov/factsheets/Calcium-Consumer/

Shahid, M. A., Ashraf, M. A., & Sharma, S. (2022). Physiology, thyroid hormone. National Library of Medicine: National Center for Biotechnology Information. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/books/NBK500006/

Singh, G., & Correa, R. (2022). Methimazole. National Library of Medicine: National Center for Biotechnology Information. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/books/NBK545223/

Wang, L., Wang, N., Zhang, W., Cheng, X., Yan, Z., Shao, G., Wang, X., Wang, R., & Fu, C. (2022). Therapeutic peptides: Current applications and future directions.Signal Transduction and Targeted Therapy,7(1), 48. https://doi.org/10.1038/s41392-022-00904-4

Chapter 28 Diabetic Drugs

Akmal, M., & Wadhwa, R. (2022). Alpha glucosidase inhibitors. StatPearls. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/books/NBK557848/

Alvarez, S., Coffey, R., & Algotar, A.M. (2023). Prediabetes. StatPearls. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/books/NBK459332/

American Diabetes Association. (n.d.-a). Diagnosis. https://diabetes.org/diabetes/a1c/diagnosis

American Diabetes Association. (n.d.-b). Hyperglycemia (high blood glucose). https://diabetes.org/healthy-living/medication-treatments/blood-glucose-testing-and-control/hyperglycemia

American Diabetes Association. (n.d.-c). Hypoglycemia (low blood glucose). https://diabetes.org/healthy-living/medication-treatments/blood-glucose-testing-and-control/hypoglycemia

American Diabetes Association. (n.d.-d). Insulin and other injectables. https://diabetes.org/healthy-living/medication-treatments/insulin-other-injectables/insulin-basics

Campbell, A. (2021). Non-insulin injectable diabetes medications. https://www.diabetesselfmanagement.com/blog/non-insulin-injectable-diabetes-medications/

Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. (n.d.-a). Prevalence of diagnosed diabetes. https://www.cdc.gov/diabetes/data/statistics-report/diagnosed-diabetes.html

Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. (n.d.-b). Type 2 diabetes. https://www.cdc.gov/diabetes/basics/type2.html

Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. (n.d.-c). The facts, stats, and impacts of diabetes. https://www.cdc.gov/diabetes/library/spotlights/diabetes-facts-stats.html

Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. (2022a). CDC clinical reminder: Insulin pens must never be used for more than one person. https://www.cdc.gov/injectionsafety/clinical-reminders/insulin-pens.html

Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. (2022b). Diabetes risk factors. https://www.cdc.gov/diabetes/basics/risk-factors.html

Chen, X., Feng, L., Yao, H., Yang, L., & Qin, Y. (2021). Efficacy and safety of diazoxide for treating hyperinsulinemic hypoglycemia: A systematic review and meta-analysis.PloS One,16(2), e0246463. https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0246463

Corcoran, C., & Jacobs, T. F. (2022). Metformin. StatPearls. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/books/NBK518983/

Costello, R. A., Nicolas, S., & Shivkumar, A. (2022). Sulfonylureas. StatPearls. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/books/NBK513225/

DailyMed. (Updated September 6, 2020). Acarbose tablet. https://dailymed.nlm.nih.gov/dailymed/drugInfo.cfm?setid=c445953d-c20a-4b70-8173-009bffc5777b

DailyMed. (Updated July 25, 2023). Apidra-insulin glulisine injection, solution. https://dailymed.nlm.nih.gov/dailymed/drugInfo.cfm?setid=e7af6a7a-8046-4fb4-99794ec4230b23aa

DailyMed. (Updated May 4, 2023). Bydureon bcise-exenatide injection, suspension, extended release. https://dailymed.nlm.nih.gov/dailymed/drugInfo.cfm?setid=2d18cfc4-e0de-4814-a712-c1b7c504bff5

DailyMed. (Updated December 21, 2022). Byetta-exenatide injection. https://dailymed.nlm.nih.gov/dailymed/drugInfo.cfm?setid=53d03c03-ebf7-418d-88a8-533eabd2ee4f

DailyMed. (Updated January 5, 2023). Diazoxide oral solution. https://dailymed.nlm.nih.gov/dailymed/drugInfo.cfm?setid=f1863e5d-f2b5-2e47-e053-2a95a90af475

DailyMed. (Updated January 15, 2024). Farxiga-dapagliflozin tablet, film coated https://dailymed.nlm.nih.gov/dailymed/drugInfo.cfm?setid=72ad22ae-efe6-4cd6-a302-98aaee423d69

DailyMed. (Updated December 2, 2021). Glimepiride tablet. https://dailymed.nlm.nih.gov/dailymed/drugInfo.cfm?setid=60e9397e-83b9-489e-9683-6f87e458bbaa

DailyMed. (Updated November 28, 2023). Glipizide tablet. https://dailymed.nlm.nih.gov/dailymed/drugInfo.cfm?setid=5565ccec-8000-48ab-a6af-37eca2d8c993

DailyMed. (Updated November 10, 2021). Glucagon kit. https://dailymed.nlm.nih.gov/dailymed/drugInfo.cfm?setid=c5c431b4-5618-4ff4-954e-4c0fbfed67b6

DailyMed. (Updated March 14, 2022). Glyburide and metformin tablet. https://dailymed.nlm.nih.gov/dailymed/drugInfo.cfm?setid=7010b662-8b34-49ce-8e5b-73dee0821a60

DailyMed. (Updated December 27, 2019). Glyburide tablet. https://dailymed.nlm.nih.gov/dailymed/drugInfo.cfm?setid=5c391b11-68e9-4040-8408-56b43ee853f5

DailyMed. (Updated July 21, 2023). Humalog injection. https://dailymed.nlm.nih.gov/dailymed/drugInfo.cfm?setid=c8ecbd7a-0e22-4fc7-a503-faa58c1b6f3f

DailyMed. (Updated March 7, 2023). Humulin N-insulin human injection, suspension. https://dailymed.nlm.nih.gov/dailymed/drugInfo.cfm?setid=f6edd793-440b-40c2-96b5-c16133b7a921

DailyMed. (Updated January 30, 2023). Humulin R-insulin human injection solution. https://dailymed.nlm.nih.gov/dailymed/drugInfo.cfm?setid=b519bd83-038c-4ec5-a231-a51ec5cc291f

DailyMed. (Updated August 7, 2023). Janumet-sitagliptin and metformin hydrochloride tablet, film coated. https://dailymed.nlm.nih.gov/dailymed/drugInfo.cfm?setid=d19c7ed0-ad5c-426e-b2df-722508f97d67

DailyMed. (Updated July 31, 2023). Januvia-sitagliptin tablet, film coated. https://dailymed.nlm.nih.gov/dailymed/drugInfo.cfm?setid=f85a48d0-0407-4c50-b0fa-7673a160bf01

DailyMed. (Updated November 21, 2023). Jardiance-empagliflozin tablet, film coated. https://dailymed.nlm.nih.gov/dailymed/drugInfo.cfm?setid=faf3dd6a-9cd0-39c2-0d2e-232cb3f67565

DailyMed. (Updated June 17, 2022). Lantus-insulin glargine injection solution lantus solostar-insulin glargine injection, solution. https://dailymed.nlm.nih.gov/dailymed/drugInfo.cfm?setid=d5e07a0c-7e14-4756-9152-9fea485d654a

DailyMed. (Updated December 8, 2022). Levemir-insulin determir injection, solution. https://dailymed.nlm.nih.gov/dailymed/drugInfo.cfm?setid=d38d65c1-25bf-401d-9c7e-a2c3222da8af

DailyMed. (Updated July 21, 2023). Lispro injection. https://dailymed.nlm.nih.gov/dailymed/drugInfo.cfm?setid=97d5e596-aae1-42c9-ae89-c3780959c467

DailyMed. (Updated May 24, 2023). Metformin HCL-metformin hcl tablet. https://dailymed.nlm.nih.gov/dailymed/drugInfo.cfm?setid=4bdd2faa-2125-4139-b958-196393e31b7e

DailyMed. (Updated October 23, 2019). Miglitol tablet, coated. https://dailymed.nlm.nih.gov/dailymed/drugInfo.cfm?setid=192e6ed7-9e8c-4772-9e3b-5912a1c63a31

DailyMed. (Updated September 22, 2023). Mounjaro-tirepatide injection, solution. https://dailymed.nlm.nih.gov/dailymed/drugInfo.cfm?setid=d2d7da5d-ad07-4228-955f-cf7e355c8cc0

DailyMed. (Updated November 23, 2022). Novolin N-human insulin injection, suspension. https://dailymed.nlm.nih.gov/dailymed/drugInfo.cfm?setid=82f1445c-b2c6-445a-82cf-ba8825fac776

DailyMed. (Updated November 23, 2022). Novolin R-human insulin injection, solution. https://dailymed.nlm.nih.gov/dailymed/drugInfo.cfm?setid=aee7f1f3-612c-4027-8ce9-4fd1f41eed71

DailyMed. (Updated February 28, 2023). Novolog-insulin aspart injection, solution. https://dailymed.nlm.nih.gov/dailymed/drugInfo.cfm?setid=3a1e73a2-3009-40d0-876c-b4cb2be56fc5

DailyMed. (Updated September 22, 2023). Ozempic-semaglutide injection, solution. https://dailymed.nlm.nih.gov/dailymed/drugInfo.cfm?setid=adec4fd2-6858-4c99-91d4-531f5f2a2d79

DailyMed. (Updated February 14, 2022). Pioglitazone hydrochloride tablet. https://dailymed.nlm.nih.gov/dailymed/drugInfo.cfm?setid=1f259863-21fd-4d62-b094-4eff845944df

DailyMed. (Updated December 15, 2022). Repaglinide tablet. https://dailymed.nlm.nih.gov/dailymed/drugInfo.cfm?setid=68064989-47ea-4ed5-a20e-43c4ef6ec271

DailyMed. (Updated December 18, 2019). Symlinpen-pramlintide acetate injection. https://dailymed.nlm.nih.gov/dailymed/drugInfo.cfm?setid=4aea30ff-eb0d-45c1-b114-3127966328ff

DailyMed. (Updated June 26, 2023). Tradjenta (Linagliptin) tablet. https://dailymed.nlm.nih.gov/dailymed/drugInfo.cfm?setid=c797ea5c-cab7-494b-9044-27eba0cfe40f

DailyMed. (Updated July 1, 2022). Tresiba-insulin degludec injection, solution. https://dailymed.nlm.nih.gov/dailymed/drugInfo.cfm?setid=456c5e87-3dfd-46fa-8ac0-c6128d4c97c6

DailyMed. (Updated April 7, 2023). Trulicity-dulaglutide injection, solution. https://dailymed.nlm.nih.gov/dailymed/drugInfo.cfm?setid=463050bd-2b1c-40f5-b3c3-0a04bb433309

DailyMed. (Updated July 5, 2023). Victoza-liraglutide injection. https://dailymed.nlm.nih.gov/dailymed/drugInfo.cfm?setid=5a9ef4ea-c76a-4d34-a604-27c5b505f5a4

DailyMed. (Updated July 10, 2023). Xultrophy (Insulin degludec and liraglutide) injection. https://dailymed.nlm.nih.gov/dailymed/drugInfo.cfm?setid=21335fe4-d395-4501-ac2a-2f20d7520da9

Dhatariya, K., Corsino, L., & Umpierrez, G. E. (2020). Management of diabetes and hyperglycemia in hospitalized patients. In K. R. Feingold, B. Anawalt, M. R. Blackman, et al. (Eds.), Endotext. MDText.com. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/books/NBK279093/

Dhillon, S. (2019). Dapagliflozin: A review in type 2 diabetes.Drugs,79(10), 1135–1146. https://doi.org/10.1007/s40265-019-01148-3

Diabetes.co.uk. (2023). Fixed dose insulin therapy. https://www.diabetes.co.uk/insulin/fixed-dose-therapy.html

Dilworth, L., Facey, A., & Omoruyi, F. (2021). Diabetes mellitus and its metabolic complications: The role of adipose tissues.International Journal of Molecular Science.22,(14) 7644. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms22147644

Dimakos, J., Cui, Y., Platt, R. W., Renoux, C., Filion, K. B., & Douros, A. (2023). Concomitant use of Sulfonylureas and β-blockers and the risk of severe hypoglycemia among patients with type 2 diabetes: A population-based cohort study. Diabetes Care; 46 (2): 377–383. https://doi.org/10.2337/dc22-1584

Eggleton, J. S., & Jialal, I. (2023). Thiazolidinediones. StatPearls. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/books/NBK551656/

Feingold, K. R. (2022). Oral and injectable (non-insulin) pharmacological agents for the treatment of type 2 diabetes. In K. R. Feingold, B. Anawalt, M. R. Blackman, et al. (Eds.), Endotext. MDText.com. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/books/NBK279141/

Gharabaghi, M. A. M. Z., Rezvanfar, M. R., Saeedi, N., Aghajani, F., Alirezaei, M., Yarahmadi, P., & Nakhostin-Ansari, A. (2022). Comparison of effects of Empagliflozin and Linagliptin on renal function and glycaemic control: A double-blind, randomized clinical trial.Clinical Diabetes and Endocrinology,8(1), 5. https://doi.org/10.1186/s40842-022-00142-1

He, M., Deng, M., Wang, J., Fan, P., Wang, Y., Zhao, X., He, Y., Shi, B., & Sui, J. (2021). Efficacy and tolerability of sitagliptin and metformin compared with insulin as an initial therapy for newly diagnosed diabetic patients with severe hyperglycaemia.Experimental and Therapeutic Medicine,21(3), 217. https://doi.org/10.3892/etm.2021.9649

He, Z., Gao, Y., Lieu, L., Afrin, S., Cao, J., Michael, N. J., Dong, Y., Sun, J., Guo, H., & Williams, K. W. (2019). Direct and indirect effects of liraglutide on hypothalamic POMC and NPY/AgRP neurons—Implications for energy balance and glucose control.Molecular Metabolism,28, 120–134. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.molmet.2019.07.008

Holt, R. I. G., DeVries, J. H., Hess-Fischl, A., Hirsch, I. B., Kirkman, M. S., Klupa, T., Ludwig, B., Nørgaard, K., Pettus, J., Renard, E., Skyler, J. S., Snoek, F. J., Weinstock, R. S., & Peters, A. L. (2021). The management of type 1 diabetes in adults. A consensus report by the American Diabetes Association (ADA) and the European Association for the Study of Diabetes (EASD).Diabetologia,64(12), 2609–2652. https://doi.org/10.1007/s00125-021-05568-3

Institute for Safe Medication Practices. (2019). Independent double checks: Worth the effort if used judiciously and properly. https://www.ismp.org/resources/independent-double-checks-worth-effort-if-used-judiciously-and-properly

Jódar, E., Romera, I., Wang, Q., Roche, S. L., & García-Pérez, L. E. (2022). Glycaemic variability in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus treated with dulaglutide, with and without concomitant insulin: Post hoc analyses of randomized clinical trials.Diabetes, Obesity & Metabolism,24(4), 631–640. https://doi.org/10.1111/dom.14615

Kalra, S., Das, A. K., Priya, G., Ghosh, S., Mehrotra, R. N., Das, S., Shah, P., Bajaj, S., Deshmukh, V., Sanyal, D., Chandrasekaran, S., Khandelwal, D., Joshi, A., Nair, T., Eliana, F., Permana, H., Fariduddin, M. D., Shrestha, P. K., Shrestha, D., Kahandawa, S., & Shaikh, K. (2020). Fixed-dose combination in management of type 2 diabetes mellitus: Expert opinion from an international panel.Journal of Family Medicine and Primary Care,9(11), 5450–5457. https://doi.org/10.4103/jfmpc.jfmpc_843_20

Kasina, S. V. S. K., & Baradhi, K. M. (2022). Dipeptidyl peptidase IV (DPP IV) inhibitors. StatPearls. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/books/NBK542331/

Maikawa, C. L., Smith, A. A. A., Zou, L., Roth, G. A., Gale, E. C., Stapleton, L. M., Baker, S. W., Mann, J. L., Yu, A. C., Correa, S., Grosskopf, A. K., Liong, C. S., Meis, C. M., Chan, D., Troxell, M., Maahs, D. M., Buckingham, B. A., Webber, M. J., & Appel, E. A. (2020). A co-formulation of supramolecularly stabilized insulin and pramlintide enhances mealtime glucagon suppression in diabetic pigs.Nature Biomedical Engineering,4(5), 507–517. https://doi.org/10.1038/s41551-020-0555-4

Mathew, P., & Thoppil, D. (2022). Hypoglycemia. StatPearls. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/books/NBK534841/

Migdal, A. L., Fortin-Leung, C., Pasquel, F., Wang, H., Peng, L., & Umpierrez, G. E. (2021). Inpatient glycemic control with sliding scale insulin in noncritical patients with type 2 diabetes: Who can slide? Journal of Hospital Medicine, 16(8), 462–468. https://doi.org/10.12788/jhm.3654

Morris, C. H., & Baker J. (2022). Glucagon. StatPearls. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/books/NBK559195/

NIH National Institute of Diabetes and Digestive and Kidney Diseases. (n.d.). Tests & diagnosis for gestational diabetes. https://www.niddk.nih.gov/health-information/diabetes/overview/what-is-diabetes/gestational/tests-diagnosis

National Library of Medicine. (2022a). Glimepiride. Medline Plus. https://medlineplus.gov/druginfo/meds/a696016.html#brand-name-1

National Library of Medicine. (2022b). Glipizide. Medline Plus. https://medlineplus.gov/druginfo/meds/a684060.html

National Library of Medicine. (2022c). Glyburide. Medline Plus. https://medlineplus.gov/druginfo/meds/a684058.html#brand-name-1

Padda, I. S., Mahtani, A. U., & Parmar, M. (2022). Sodium-glucose transport protein 2 (SGLT2) inhibitors. StatPearls. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/books/NBK576405/

Rubin, R., Khanna, N. R., & McIver, L. A. (2022). Aspart insulin. StatPearls. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/books/NBK500030/

Sapra, A., & Bhandari, P. (2023). Diabetes. StatPearls. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/books/NBK551501/

Shuster, D. L., Shireman, L. M., Ma, X., Shen, D. D., Flood Nichols, S. K., Ahmed, M. S., Clark, S., Caritis, S., Venkataramanan, R., Haas, D. M., Quinney, S. K., Haneline, L. S., Tita, A. T., Manuck, T. A., Thummel, K. E., Brown, L. M., Ren, Z., Brown, Z., Easterling, T. R., & Hebert, M. F. (2020). Pharmacodynamics of glyburide, metformin, and glyburide/metformin combination therapy in the treatment of gestational diabetes mellitus.Clinical Pharmacology and Therapeutics,107(6), 1362–1372. https://doi.org/10.1002/cpt.1749

Sizar, O., Podder, V., & Talati, R. (2022). Empagliflozin. StatPearls. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/books/NBK532925/

Smits, M. M., & Van Raalte, D. H. (2021). Safety of semaglutide.Frontiers in Endocrinology,12, 645563. https://doi.org/10.3389/fendo.2021.645563

Thota, S., & Akbar, A. (2022). Insulin. StatPearls. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/books/NBK560688/

U.S. Food & Drug Administration. (2023). FDA approves first cellular therapy to treat patients with type 1 diabetes. https://www.fda.gov/news-events/press-announcements/fda-approves-first-cellular-therapy-treat-patients-type-1-diabetes

World Health Organization. (n.d.). Mean fasting blood glucose. https://www.who.int/data/gho/indicator-metadata-registry/imr-details/2380

Wysham, C. H., Rosenstock, J., Vetter, M. L., Wang, H., Hardy, E., & Iqbal, N. (2020). Further improvement in glycemic control after switching from exenatide two times per day to exenatide once-weekly autoinjected suspension in patients with type 2 diabetes: 52-week results from the DURATION-NEO-1 study.BMJ Open Diabetes Research & Care,8(1), e000773. https://doi.org/10.1136/bmjdrc-2019-000773

Yale School of Medicine. (2022). For diabetic patients on glucophage and glucovance: How to take your oral diabetes medications containing metformin after you receive iodinated contrast dye for a CT scan. https://medicine.yale.edu/diagnosticradiology/patientcare/policies/glucophage/

Zhou, X. J., Ding, L., Liu, J. X., Su, L. Q., Dong, J. J., & Liao, L. (2019). Efficacy and short-term side effects of sitagliptin, vildagliptin and saxagliptin in Chinese diabetes: A randomized clinical trial.Endocrine Connections,8(4), 318–325. https://doi.org/10.1530/EC-18-0523

Chapter 29 Introduction to the Digestive System

Cleveland Clinic. (n.d.). Salivary glands. https://my.clevelandclinic.org/health/body/23462-salivary-glands

Engevik, A. C., Kaji, I., & Goldenring, J. R. (2020). The physiology of the gastric parietal cell. Physiological Reviews, 100(2), 573–602. https://doi.org/10.1152/physrev.00016.2019

Mayo Clinic. (n.d.). Irritable bowel syndrome. https://www.mayoclinic.org/diseases-conditions/irritable-bowel-syndrome/symptoms-causes/syc-20360016

Rao, A. A., & Johncy, S. (2022). Tennis courts in the human body: A review of the misleading metaphor in medical literature. Cureus, 14(1), e21474. https://doi.org/10.7759/cureus.21474

Thursby, E., & Juge, N. (2017). Introduction to the human gut microbiota. Biochemical Journal, 474(11), 1823–1836. https://doi.org/10.1042%2FBCJ20160510

Chapter 30 Gastrointestinal Disorder Drugs

DailyMed. (Updated November 29, 2022). 4718 Enema, mineral oil enema. https://dailymed.nlm.nih.gov/dailymed/drugInfo.cfm?setid=9e51c852-9477-5cf5-e053-2a95a90a97db

DailyMed. (Updated September 19, 2022). Anti-diarrheal loperamide hcl, 2 mg caplets–loperamide hcl tablet. https://dailymed.nlm.nih.gov/dailymed/drugInfo.cfm?setid=e3d4f789-d41c-4965-975b-5af743d7b8e3

DailyMed. (Updated July 8, 2022). Aprepitant capsule. https://dailymed.nlm.nih.gov/dailymed/drugInfo.cfm?setid=af9b6086-4bf2-472c-8740-4134eaaebace

DailyMed. (Updated August 17, 2022). Best Choice fiber laxative–psyllium husk capsule. https://dailymed.nlm.nih.gov/dailymed/drugInfo.cfm?setid=92b46689-b5fc-41f4-91ac-535699900b39

DailyMed. (Updated October 28, 2022). Bisacodyl laxative enteric coated–bisacodyl tablet, coated. https://dailymed.nlm.nih.gov/dailymed/drugInfo.cfm?setid=0f51f7e9-370e-4c19-8a45-0ae5ccfd4275

DailyMed. (Updated April 28, 2023). BISAC-10 Bisacodyl stimulant laxative–bisacodyl suppository. https://dailymed.nlm.nih.gov/dailymed/drugInfo.cfm?setid=10816e1e-b00c-4f6f-a544-278635919d37

DailyMed. (Updated March 29, 2023). Bismuth subsalicylate 262 mg–bismuth subsalicylate tablet, chewable. https://dailymed.nlm.nih.gov/dailymed/drugInfo.cfm?setid=2e40ffd8-1afa-43af-e054-00144ff8d46c

DailyMed. (Updated July 18, 2022). Calcium polycarbophil tablet, film coated. https://dailymed.nlm.nih.gov/dailymed/drugInfo.cfm?setid=b4637e18-c65f-0e81-e053-2a95a90a2284

DailyMed. (Updated December 5, 2022). Castor oil liquid. https://dailymed.nlm.nih.gov/dailymed/drugInfo.cfm?setid=f20de8f2-3637-4485-8b80-0a12fd5e651c

DailyMed. (Updated August 16, 2023). Chlorpromazine hydrochloride injection. https://dailymed.nlm.nih.gov/dailymed/drugInfo.cfm?setid=07e6144a-b460-4887-b8e2-dd371c14a55c

DailyMed. (Updated January 18, 2022). Chlorpromazine tablet. https://dailymed.nlm.nih.gov/dailymed/drugInfo.cfm?setid=432cd4ca-c728-48ff-beec-2485f5e02512

DailyMed. (Updated September 14, 2023). Cinvanti-aprepitant injection, emulsion. https://dailymed.nlm.nih.gov/dailymed/drugInfo.cfm?setid=4c218d3a-a508-4abc-9ed8-a6e8e191d1b4

DailyMed. (Updated March 17, 2022). CVS mineral oil – mineral oil liquid. https://dailymed.nlm.nih.gov/dailymed/drugInfo.cfm?setid=9d7402e1-524b-1084-e053-2a95a90ae3af

DailyMed. (Updated September 13, 2023). CVS senna laxative, sennosides liquid. https://dailymed.nlm.nih.gov/dailymed/drugInfo.cfm?setid=5a5565b2-827f-4fcc-a835-d827f62da8f9

DailyMed. (Updated October 18, 2019). Diphenoxylate with atropine tablet. https://dailymed.nlm.nih.gov/dailymed/drugInfo.cfm?setid=73dc5f91-d562-44c5-a556-66c96ed1dd82

DailyMed. (Updated April 10, 2020). Docusate calcium 240 mg sodium free–docusate calcium capsule, liquid filled. https://dailymed.nlm.nih.gov/dailymed/drugInfo.cfm?setid=52139708-8a21-4fc5-b375-c6f9064cce22

DailyMed. (Updated December 28, 2022). Docusate sodium 100 mg two toned–docusate sodium capsule, liquid filled. https://dailymed.nlm.nih.gov/dailymed/drugInfo.cfm?setid=80092188-0517-4646-bd46-ab56c63bb354

DailyMed. (Updated January 25, 2022). Dronabinol capsule. https://dailymed.nlm.nih.gov/dailymed/drugInfo.cfm?setid=a0409d82-a61e-4b9e-8717-ced299ccedb2

DailyMed. (Updated January 16, 2020). Enema mineral oil-mineral oil enema. https://dailymed.nlm.nih.gov/dailymed/drugInfo.cfm?setid=44ded8db-cace-416a-a15f-921fcdaa11bd

DailyMed. (Updated July 24, 2022). Genexa senna laxative–sennosides tablet. https://dailymed.nlm.nih.gov/dailymed/drugInfo.cfm?setid=b22e1f9a-20b9-4c8b-e053-2995a90ae1e2

DailyMed. (Updated February 24, 2022). Granisetron hydrochloride tablet, film coated. https://dailymed.nlm.nih.gov/dailymed/drugInfo.cfm?setid=50b713d3-7ca8-465a-aefa-65ddbe17b934

DailyMed. (Updated November 15, 2022). Granisetron injection, solution. https://dailymed.nlm.nih.gov/dailymed/drugInfo.cfm?setid=dddc8714-383f-4bc5-a468-ae89dbc802b4

DailyMed. (Updated September 6, 2019). Hydroxyzine hydrochloride injection, solution. https://dailymed.nlm.nih.gov/dailymed/drugInfo.cfm?setid=8af7e5ce-d9d9-44cc-9f2f-4ddbc89e758a

DailyMed. (Updated February 4, 2010). Hydroxyzine tablet. https://dailymed.nlm.nih.gov/dailymed/drugInfo.cfm?setid=81f9d88f-c50b-4c6a-a25b-46fa162a503e

DailyMed. (Updated December 6, 2022). Konsyl Original Formula Psyllium Fiber – psyllium husk granule. https://dailymed.nlm.nih.gov/dailymed/drugInfo.cfm?setid=6c876cf1-c2ab-4bdc-bb3e-ac2ce5863649

DailyMed. (Updated June 12, 2023). Linzess–linaclotide capsul, gelatin coated. https://dailymed.nlm.nih.gov/dailymed/drugInfo.cfm?setid=09beda19-56d6-4a56-afdc-9a77b70b2ef3

DailyMed. (Updated September 12, 2023). Lomotil–diphenoxylate hydrochloride and atropine sulfate tablet. https://dailymed.nlm.nih.gov/dailymed/drugInfo.cfm?setid=f170584a-1072-4fd7-b1dc-6756703483b9

DailyMed. (Updated September 19, 2022). Loperamide tablet. https://dailymed.nlm.nih.gov/dailymed/drugInfo.cfm?setid=e3d4f789-d41c-4965-975b-5af743d7b8e3

DailyMed. (Updated September 12, 2023). Magnesium citrate–behealth magnesium citrate oral solution – cherry liquid. https://dailymed.nlm.nih.gov/dailymed/drugInfo.cfm?setid=f0fa4b72-50a5-5c42-e053-2995a90a159a

DailyMed. (Updated December 9, 2021). Meclizine tablet, chewable. https://dailymed.nlm.nih.gov/dailymed/drugInfo.cfm?setid=cf79ac74-017e-4fb4-85d3-4ea944080e89

DailyMed. (Updated July 5, 2023). Miralax–polyethylene glycol 3350 powder, for solution. https://dailymed.nlm.nih.gov/dailymed/drugInfo.cfm?setid=d69ce3d4-7ca4-4fe3-b49e-6655e48d6963

DailyMed. (Updated September 15, 2023). Mycapssa-octreotide capsule, delayed release. https://dailymed.nlm.nih.gov/dailymed/drugInfo.cfm?setid=62a5e1eb-b48e-4ea6-8781-f75e490b17e4

DailyMed. (Updated June 26, 2023). Octreotide acetate injection, solution. https://dailymed.nlm.nih.gov/dailymed/drugInfo.cfm?setid=884e4287-a4d8-4a6e-8d99-dbe5e88875b9

DailyMed. (Updated November 1, 2021). Ondansetron hydrochloride tablet, film coated. https://dailymed.nlm.nih.gov/dailymed/drugInfo.cfm?setid=57578387-1918-4e56-a564-f14fb22340bf

DailyMed. (Updated October 19, 2022). Ondansetron injection. https://dailymed.nlm.nih.gov/dailymed/drugInfo.cfm?setid=59c4227a-90b6-4297-aacd-05bd097010c1

DailyMed. (Updated October 3, 2023). Pancreatinum–pancreatin granule. https://dailymed.nlm.nih.gov/dailymed/drugInfo.cfm?setid=155903b0-3998-24c4-e054-00144ff8d46c

DailyMed. (Updated October 27, 2021). Polycarbophil tablet. https://dailymed.nlm.nih.gov/dailymed/drugInfo.cfm?setid=2fabd7ec-228f-1565-e054-00144ff88e88

DailyMed. (Updated February 8, 2023). Polyethylene glycol powder, for solution. https://dailymed.nlm.nih.gov/dailymed/drugInfo.cfm?setid=29d821ff-389c-41fb-8a27-89bd3f022b82

Daily Med. (2023). (Updated December 1, 2022). Prochlorperazine edisylate injection. https://dailymed.nlm.nih.gov/dailymed/fda/fdaDrugXsl.cfm?setid=29f0e68d-4653-472d-bd86-e87a8e2cb529&type=display

DailyMed. (Updated April 18, 2023). Prochlorperazine maleate tablet, film coated. https://dailymed.nlm.nih.gov/dailymed/drugInfo.cfm?setid=a2a48790-0634-4b46-b362-98b7c252836f

DailyMed. (Updated June 14, 2022). Prochlorperazine suppository. https://dailymed.nlm.nih.gov/dailymed/drugInfo.cfm?setid=9595346e-76e5-e155-341b-ffaaafb885ab

DailyMed. (Updated July 11, 2022). Promethazine hydrochloride injection. https://dailymed.nlm.nih.gov/dailymed/drugInfo.cfm?setid=13d9e59d-eadb-41d5-9f47-9c11a6efb31c

DailyMed. (Updated March 22, 2023). Promethazine hydrochloride-promethazine hydrochloride syrup. https://dailymed.nlm.nih.gov/dailymed/drugInfo.cfm?setid=73c76b87-8d98-4d78-ab00-549f3bc3c324

DailyMed. (Updated August 7, 2023). Promethazine hydrochloride suppository. https://dailymed.nlm.nih.gov/dailymed/drugInfo.cfm?setid=047b9a7c-586b-4635-a63e-2c7ce9ec34e7

DailyMed. (Updated October 27, 2020). Psyllium fiber – psyllium husk powder. https://dailymed.nlm.nih.gov/dailymed/drugInfo.cfm?setid=afc52039-2370-4c21-b9c8-733ec009e881

DailyMed. (Updated August 17, 2023). Psyllium husk capsule. https://dailymed.nlm.nih.gov/dailymed/drugInfo.cfm?setid=92b46689-b5fc-41f4-91ac-535699900b39

DailyMed. (Updated August 19, 2020). Rolapitant tablet. https://dailymed.nlm.nih.gov/dailymed/drugInfo.cfm?setid=a52896cd-4a98-49b8-82db-bf1985a64d97

DailyMed. (Updated August 24, 2023). Sancuso-granisetron patch. https://dailymed.nlm.nih.gov/dailymed/drugInfo.cfm?setid=ba44e7d8-0c71-4eb9-a951-3d91038293c5

DailyMed. (Updated July 5, 2023). Scopolamine transdermal system–scopolamine transdermal system patch, extended release. https://dailymed.nlm.nih.gov/dailymed/drugInfo.cfm?setid=cb93bfad-3e37-4a27-92f6-f21703ae7bdf

DailyMed. (Updated August 24, 2018). Soluble fiber - methylcellulose tablet. https://dailymed.nlm.nih.gov/dailymed/drugInfo.cfm?setid=6decd5ef-e8e1-44ae-8465-6266cf18e81e

DailyMed. (Updated December 29, 2020). Sorbitol Solution – sorbitol liquid. https://dailymed.nlm.nih.gov/dailymed/drugInfo.cfm?setid=b4dd7a41-380e-d94b-e053-2a95a90ac34a

Johns Hopkins Medicine. (2023). Diarrhea. https://www.hopkinsmedicine.org/health/conditions-and-diseases/diarrhea

Krishnamurthi, S., & Macaron, C. (2022). Management of acute chemotherapy-related diarrhea. UpToDate. https://www.uptodate.com/contents/management-of-acute-chemotherapy-related-diarrhea

Mayo Foundation for Medical Education and Research. (2023a). Laxative (oral route). https://www.mayoclinic.org/drugs-supplements/laxative-oral-route/precautions/drg-20070683?p=1

Mayo Foundation for Medical Education and Research. (2023b). Phenothiazine (oral route, parenteral route, rectal route)—side effects. https://www.mayoclinic.org/drugs-supplements/phenothiazine-oral-route-parenteral-route-rectal-route/side-effects/drg-20070394

National Library of Medicine. (2022). Diphenoxylate and atropine. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/books/NBK559300/

Novartis. (2021). Highlights of prescribing information. https://www.novartis.com/us-en/sites/novartis_us/files/sandostatin_lar.pdf

Proctor & Gamble. (2022). What is psyllium? The ultimate guide to psyllium husk. https://www.metamucil.com/en-us/articles/psyllium-fiber/what-is-psyllium-husk-and-what-are-its-benefits/

Rao, S., & Brenner, D. (2021). Efficacy and safety of over-the-counter therapies for chronic constipation: An updated systemic review. American Journal of Gastroenterology, 161(6), 1156–1181. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8191753/

Chapter 31 Hyperacidity and Antiulcer Drugs

DailyMed. (Updated November 15, 2017). Aluminum hydroxide liquid. https://dailymed.nlm.nih.gov/dailymed/drugInfo.cfm?setid=27c574a5-1fe0-4973-9a31-9beb4fc6ec46

DailyMed. (Updated December 13, 2022). Basic care lansoprazole – lansoprazole capsule delayed release. https://dailymed.nlm.nih.gov/dailymed/drugInfo.cfm?setid=5ab07bf7-140a-4ca0-9b3a-38da7aa454db

DailyMed. (Updated December 20, 2022). Calcium carbonate 10 gr (648 mg) (antacid) (calcium carbonate 10 gr (648mg tablet). https://dailymed.nlm.nih.gov/dailymed/drugInfo.cfm?setid=f21c8cf7-45cb-492b-bf4a-462024a54569

DailyMed. (Updated April 13, 2006). Cimetidine in sodium chloride-Cimetidine and Sodium Chloride injection, solution. https://dailymed.nlm.nih.gov/dailymed/drugInfo.cfm?setid=4aa4ee5b-b5be-4a98-5b8c-6f75e2b59e51

DailyMed. (Updated August 18, 2023). Cimetidine tablet, film coated. https://dailymed.nlm.nih.gov/dailymed/drugInfo.cfm?setid=01997826-7ca1-473e-bfc9-075b14b58a35

DailyMed. (Updated August 9, 2022). Equate famotidine – famotidine tablet, film coated. https://dailymed.nlm.nih.gov/dailymed/drugInfo.cfm?setid=f38f8a8f-3292-4fe5-b83f-ffd634196d42

DailyMed. (Updated July 21, 2023). Esomeprazole sodium injection. https://dailymed.nlm.nih.gov/dailymed/drugInfo.cfm?setid=9354958c-e997-41c8-8605-23f0a58993c0

DailyMed. (Updated August 25, 2023). Esomeprazole capsule, delayed release. https://dailymed.nlm.nih.gov/dailymed/drugInfo.cfm?setid=7c497204-29ce-45e0-84d4-91b981c9b7aa

DailyMed. (Updated November 8, 2022). Famotidine-famotidine injection, solution. https://dailymed.nlm.nih.gov/dailymed/drugInfo.cfm?setid=aeb27cea-1ff7-4a6e-93f1-d4c4dac5faa7

DailyMed. (Updated March 14, 2022). Humco Sodium Bicarbonate – sodium bicarbonate powder. https://dailymed.nlm.nih.gov/dailymed/drugInfo.cfm?setid=aeaa34f6-216d-49f3-8393-c7bda96a3e32

DailyMed. (Updated November 7, 2022). Misoprostol tablet. https://dailymed.nlm.nih.gov/dailymed/drugInfo.cfm?setid=54d26ca3-d309-4048-8699-a04b3854ef9c

DailyMed. (Updated December 6, 2018). Nizatidine – capsule. https://dailymed.nlm.nih.gov/dailymed/drugInfo.cfm?setid=faaa7cc4-fda9-d5b8-de2a-71c8744ccb76

DailyMed. (Updated May 6, 2023). Omeprazole capsule, delayed release. https://dailymed.nlm.nih.gov/dailymed/drugInfo.cfm?setid=19097902-a5e6-423a-8569-31c569cd3cdb

DailyMed. (Updated March 17, 2022). Premier value milk of magnesia-magnesium hydroxide suspension. https://dailymed.nlm.nih.gov/dailymed/drugInfo.cfm?setid=c3cdaa2b-db34-872d-e053-2995a90a3826

DailyMed. (Updated September 02, 2023). Pantoprazole sodium delayed-release tablet. https://dailymed.nlm.nih.gov/dailymed/drugInfo.cfm?setid=0502f935-af7a-4f1e-8c3e-29e20647c885

DailyMed. (Updated July 19, 2023). Protonix I.V.-pantoprazole sodium injection, powder, for solution. https://dailymed.nlm.nih.gov/dailymed/drugInfo.cfm?setid=f39b3e7d-39d2-4c8a-9974-4ab885241880

DailyMed. (Updated July 25, 2023). Sucralfate – sucralfate oral suspension. https://dailymed.nlm.nih.gov/dailymed/drugInfo.cfm?setid=4350b771-76a9-4e00-93f0-a18c71288f83

Mayo Clinic. (2023). Zollinger-Ellison Syndrome. https://www.mayoclinic.org/diseases-conditions/zollinger-ellison-syndrome/symptoms-causes/syc-20379042

Pfizer, Inc. (2023). Protonix® instructions for use. https://www.pfizermedicalinformation.com/en-us/protonix/instructions

Pino, M., & Azer, S. (2023). Cimetidine. StatPearls. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/books/NBK544255/

Rosen, H. (2023). Calcium and vitamin D supplementation in osteoporosis. UpToDate. https://www.uptodate.com/contents/calcium-and-vitamin-d-supplementation-in-osteoporosis

Salisbury, B., & Terrell, J. (2022). Antacids. National Library of Medicine. National Center for Biotechnology Information. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/books/NBK526049/

Shah, N., & Gossman, W. (2023). Omeprazole. StatPearls. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/books/NBK539786/

Chapter 32 Weight Management Drugs

American College of Obstetricians and Gynecologists. (2019). Ethical considerations for the care of patients with obesity. https://www.acog.org/clinical/clinical-guidance/committee-opinion/articles/2019/01/ethical-considerations-for-the-care-of-patients-with-obesity

American Heart Association. (2020). Eating well can benefit both your health and your bank account. https://www.heart.org/en/news/2020/03/27/eating-well-can-benefit-both-your-health-and-your-bank-account

American Medical Association. (2023). AMA adopts new policy clarifying role of BMI as a measure in medicine. https://www.ama-assn.org/press-center/press-releases/ama-adopts-new-policy-clarifying-role-bmi-measure-medicine

Balch, P. (2023). Prescription for nutritional healing, (8th ed.). Avery.

Basak, S., & Duttaroy, A. (2020). Conjugated linoleic acid and its beneficial effects in obesity, cardiovascular disease, and cancer. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7401241/

Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. (2022a). Adult obesity maps. https://www.cdc.gov/obesity/data/prevalence-maps.html

Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. (2022b). Consequences of obesity. https://www.cdc.gov/obesity/basics/consequences.html

Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. (2022c). Adult obesity facts. https://www.cdc.gov/obesity/data/adult.html

Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. (n.d.). Overweight & obesity. https://www.cdc.gov/obesity/index.html

Cleveland Clinic. (2022). Obesity. https://my.clevelandclinic.org/health/diseases/11209-weight-control-and-obesity

Cleveland Clinic. (2023a). Leptin and leptin resistance. https://my.clevelandclinic.org/health/articles/22446-leptin

Cleveland Clinic. (2023b). Serotonin. https://my.clevelandclinic.org/health/articles/22572-serotonin

DailyMed. (Updated September 30, 2020). Adipex-P – Phentermine hydrochloride tablet. https://dailymed.nlm.nih.gov/dailymed/drugInfo.cfm?setid=f5b2f9d8-2226-476e-9caf-9d41e6891c46

DailyMed. (Updated November 23, 2021). Benzphetamine hydrochloride tablet, film coated. https://dailymed.nlm.nih.gov/dailymed/drugInfo.cfm?setid=f6d9b369-4b64-4d3f-844d-5d60dd257c55

DailyMed. (Updated April 5, 2023). Contrave extended-release – naltrexone hydrochloride and bupropion hydrochloride tablet. https://dailymed.nlm.nih.gov/dailymed/drugInfo.cfm

DailyMed. (Updated January 6, 2023). Orlistat capsule. https://dailymed.nlm.nih.gov/dailymed/drugInfo.cfm?setid=f81dfaeb-46d5-47ce-9ef6-19259f5ac61c

Daily Med. (Updated October 27, 2022). Phendimetrazine tartrate capsule, extended release. https://dailymed.nlm.nih.gov/dailymed/drugInfo.cfm?setid=162140d3-b833-4633-9759-95821a46a690

DailyMed. (Updated February 7, 2019). Phendimetrazine tartrate tablet. https://dailymed.nlm.nih.gov/dailymed/drugInfo.cfm?setid=42ecacde-6859-47c6-ba44-13fb4f3b5448

DailyMed. (Updated April 14, 2022). Phentermine hydrochloride capsule. https://dailymed.nlm.nih.gov/dailymed/drugInfo.cfm?setid=a0439c85-5ede-4e02-aed2-47debd2c8eb2

DailyMed. (Updated December 20, 2018). Phentermine hydrochloride tablet. https://dailymed.nlm.nih.gov/dailymed/drugInfo.cfm?setid=ff620c0b-aa99-4f63-9526-d094cedc8d19

DailyMed. (Updated July 13, 2023). Qsymia – phentermine and topiramate capsule, extended release. https://dailymed.nlm.nih.gov/dailymed/drugInfo.cfm?setid=40dd5602-53da-45ac-bb4b-15789aba40f9

DailyMed. (Updated April 16, 2021). Saxenda – liraglutide injection, solution. https://dailymed.nlm.nih.gov/dailymed/drugInfo.cfm?setid=7b11f6ac-4c27-4748-9e65-22d4cf3adfb4

DailyMed. (Updated July 5, 2023). Victoza – liraglutide injection. https://dailymed.nlm.nih.gov/dailymed/drugInfo.cfm?setid=5a9ef4ea-c76a-4d34-a604-27c5b505f5a4

DailyMed. (Updated July 21, 2023). Wegovy – semaglutide injection, solution. https://dailymed.nlm.nih.gov/dailymed/drugInfo.cfm?setid=ee06186f-2aa3-4990-a760-757579d8f77b

den Hartigh, L. (2019). Conjugated linoleic acid effects on cancer, obesity, and atherosclerosis: A review of pre-clinical and human trials with current perspectives. National Institutes of Health. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6413010/

Dutter, E. (2019). Clean eating: What does that mean? Mayo Clinic. https://www.mayoclinichealthsystem.org/hometown-health/speaking-of-health/clean-eating-what-does-that-mean

Gurka, M. J., Filipp, S. L., & DeBoer, M. D. (2018). Geographical variation in the prevalence of obesity, metabolic syndrome, and diabetes among US adults.Nutritional Diabetes.2018, 8(1), 14. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5856741/

Harvard Health. (2023). A good guide to good carbs: The glycemic index. https://www.health.harvard.edu/healthbeat/a-good-guide-to-good-carbs-the-glycemic-index

Harvard T. H. Chan School of Public Health. (n.d.). Ethnic differences in BMI and disease risk. https://www.hsph.harvard.edu/obesity-prevention-source/ethnic-differences-in-bmi-and-disease-risk/

Huang, C., Chen, W., & Wang, X. (2023). Studies on the fat mass and obesity-associated (FTO) gene and its impact on obesity-associated diseases. Genes & Diseases, 10(6), 2351–2365. https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S235230422200112X

Kwak, J., & Shin, D. (2022). Association between green tea consumption and abdominal obesity risk in middle-aged Korean population: Findings from the Korean genome and epidemiology study. International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health, 19(5). https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8910422/

Lee, K. M., Hunger, J. M., & Tomiyama, A. J. (2021). Weight stigma and health behaviors: Evidence from the Eating in America Study.International Journal of Obesity,45, 1499–1509. https://doi.org/10.1038/s41366-021-00814-5

Loos, R. J. F., & Yeo, G. S. H. (2021). The genetics of obesity: From discovery to biology.Nature Review Genetics,23, 120–133. https://doi.org/10.1038/s41576-021-00414-z

MacPherson, R. (2022). The health benefits of glucomannan. https://www.verywellfit.com/glucomannan-benefits-uses-89456

Mayo Clinic. (2023a). Phendimetrazine (oral route). https://www.mayoclinic.org/drugs-supplements/phendimetrazine-oral-route/description/drg-20075140

Mayo Clinic. (2023b). Phentermine (oral route). https://www.mayoclinic.org/drugs-supplements/phentermine-oral-route/description/drg-20075169

Mayo Clinic. (2023c). Obesity. https://www.mayoclinic.org/diseases-conditions/obesity/symptoms-causes/syc-20375742

Mayo Clinic. (2023d). The reality of menopause weight gain. https://www.mayoclinic.org/healthy-lifestyle/womens-health/in-depth/menopause-weight-gain/art-20046058

MedlinePlus. (2023). Vitamins. https://medlineplus.gov/ency/article/002399.htm

Mokhlesi, B., Masa, J. F., Brozek, J. L., Gurubhagavatula, I., Murphy, P. B., Piper, A. J., Tulaimat, A., Afshar, M., Balachandran, J. S., Dweik, R. A., Grunstein, R. R., Hart, N., Kaw, R., Lorenzi-Filho, G., Pamidi, S., Patel, B. K., Patil, S. P., Pepin, J. L., Soghier, I., Kakazu, M. T., & Teodorescu, M.; on behalf of the American Thoracic Society Assembly on Sleep and Respiratory Neurobiology. (2019). Evaluation and management of obesity hypoventilation syndrome: An official American Thoracic Society Clinical Practice Guideline. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6680300/pdf/rccm.201905-1071ST.pdf

Nair, T. (2021). More than skin color: Ethnicity-specific BMI cutoffs for obesity based on type 2 diabetes in England. American College of Cardiology. https://www.acc.org/Latest-in-Cardiology/Articles/2021/10/18/15/35/More-Than-Skin-Color

National Center for Complementary and Integrative Health. (2020). Hoodia. https://www.nccih.nih.gov/health/hoodia

National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute. (2022). What are overweight and obesity? https://www.nhlbi.nih.gov/health/overweight-and-obesity

National Institutes of Health. (2022). Dietary supplements for weight loss: Fact sheet for health professionals. https://ods.od.nih.gov/factsheets/WeightLoss-HealthProfessional/

Papatriantafyllou, E., Efthymiou, D., Zoumbaneas, E., Popescu, C. A., & Vassilopoulou, E. (2022). Sleep deprivation: Effects on weight loss and weight loss maintenance. Nutrients, 14(8),1549. doi: 10.3390/nu14081549.

Perrault, L. (2022). Patient education: Losing weight (beyond the basics). UpToDate. https://www.uptodate.com/contents/losing-weight-beyond-the-basics

Reynolds, W. (2022). Why late-night eating leads to weight gain, diabetes. Northwestern University. https://news.northwestern.edu/stories/2022/10/why-late-night-eating-leads-to-weight-gain-diabetes/

Sahebkar, A., Simental-Mendia, L. E., Kovanen, P., Pedone, C., Simental-Mendia, M., & Cicero, A. (2018). Effects of orlistat on blood pressure: A systematic review and meta-analysis of 27 randomized controlled clinical trials. Journal of American Society of Hypertension, 12, 80–96. DOI: 10.1016/j.jash.2017.12.002.

UCLA Health. (2023). Semaglutide for weight loss—What you need to know. https://www.uclahealth.org/news/semaglutide-weight-loss-what-you-need-know

Vafiadis, D. (2021). How excess weight impacts our mental and emotional health. National Council on Aging. https://ncoa.org/article/how-excess-weight-impacts-our-mental-and-emotional-health

Westbury, S., Oyebode, O., van Rens, T., & Barber, T. (2013). Obesity stigma: Causes, consequences, and potential solutions. Current Obesity Report, 12, 10–23.

World Health Organization (WHO). (2021). Obesity and overweight. https://www.who.int/news-room/fact-sheets/detail/obesity-and-overweight

World Obesity Federation. (n.d.). Weight stigma. https://www.worldobesity.org/what-we-do/our-policy-priorities/weight-stigma

Yadav, H. M., & Jawahar, A. (2023). Environmental factors and obesity. Stat Pearls. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/books/NBK580543/

Yip, J., & Ambizas, E. (2019). Diet, exercise, or orlistat? U.S. Pharmacist. https://www.uspharmacist.com/article/weight-loss-diet-exercise-or-orlistat

Chapter 33 Introduction to the Renal and Urinary Systems

American Board of Internal Medicine. (2023). ABIM laboratory test reference ranges – July 2023. https://www.abim.org/Media/bfijryql/laboratory-reference-ranges.pdf

Gewin, L. (2021). Sugar or fat? Renal tubular metabolism reviewed in health and disease. Nutrients, 13(5), 1580. doi: 10.3390/nu13051580

Kim, S., Brodsky, I., Chatterjee, R., Kashyap, S., Knowler, W., Liao, E., Nelson, J., Pratley, R., Rasouli, N., Vickery, E., Sarnak, M., & Pittas, A. (2021). Effect of vitamin D supplementation on kidney function in adults with prediabetes: A secondary analysis of a randomized trial. Clinical Journal of the American Society of Nephrology, 16(8), 1201–1209. doi: 10.2215/CJN.00420121

Legouis,D., Faivre,A., Cippà, P. E.,& de Seigneux, S. (2022). Renal gluconeogenesis: An underestimated role of the kidney in systemic glucose metabolism. Nephrology Dialysis Transplantation, 37(8), 1417–1425,https://doi.org/10.1093/ndt/gfaa302

Lewis, J. (2022). Volume overload. Merck Manual Professional Version. https://www.merckmanuals.com/professional/endocrine-and-metabolic-disorders/fluid-metabolism/volume-overload

Najem, O., Shah,M.,& De Jesus, O. (2022). Serum osmolality. StatPearls. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/books/NBK567764/

Nandy, S., & Ranganathan, S. (2022). Urge incontinence. StatPearls. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/books/NBK563172/

National Institute of Diabetes and Digestive Kidney Diseases. (n.d.). Estimating glomerular filtration rate. https://www.niddk.nih.gov/health-information/professionals/clinical-tools-patient-management/kidney-disease/laboratory-evaluation/glomerular-filtration-rate/estimating

National Institute of Diabetes and Digestive Kidney Diseases. (2021, September). Kidney disease statistics for the United States. https://www.niddk.nih.gov/health-information/health-statistics/kidney-disease#

National Kidney Foundation. (2019). Kidney stone diet plan and prevention. A to Z. https://www.kidney.org/atoz/content/diet#what-most-important-factor-to-prevent-kidney-stone-formation

Ogobuiro, T., & Tuma, F. (2022). Physiology—renal. StatPearls. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/books/NBK538339/

Padilla, O., & Abadie, J. (2022). Blood tests: Normal values.Merck Manual Professional Version. https://www.merckmanuals.com/professional/resources/normal-laboratory-values/blood-tests-normal-values

Pickkers, P., Darmon, M., Hoste, E., Joannidis, M., Legrand, M., Ostermann, M., Prowle, J. R., Schneider, A., & Schetz, M. (2021). Acute kidney injury in the critically ill: An updated review on pathophysiology and management.Intensive Care Medicine,47(8), 835–850. https://doi.org/10.1007/s00134-021-06454-7

Schoener, B., & Borger, J. (2022). Erythropoietin stimulating agents. StatPearls. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/books/NBK536997/

Stickel, S., Gin-Sing, W., Wagenaar, M., & Gibbs, J. (2019). The practical management of fluid retention in adults with right heart failure due to pulmonary arterial hypertension. European Heart Journal Supplements: Journal of the European Society of Cardiology. 21(Suppl K): K46–K53. doi: 10.1093/eurheartj/suz207

Soriano, R., Penfold, D., & Leslie, S. (2023, July 24). Anatomy, abdomen and pelvis: Kidneys. StatPearls. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/books/NBK482385/

Tran, L., & Puckett, Y. (2022). Urinary incontinence. StatPearls. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/books/NBK559095/

Zhang, S., & Mahler, G. J. (2021). Modelling renal filtration and reabsorption processes in a human glomerulus and proximal tubule microphysiological system. Micromachines, 12(8), 983. https://doi.org/10.3390/mi12080983

Chapter 34 Diuretic Drugs

Akbari, P., & Khorasani-Zedah, A. (2022). Thiazide diuretics. StatPearls. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/books/NBK532918/

Almajid, A. N., & Cassagnol, M.(2022). Amiloride. StatPearls. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/books/NBK542303/

Arumugham, V., & Shahin, M. (2023). Therapeutic uses of diuretic agents. StatPearls. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/books/NBK557838/

Bai, X., Han, B., Zhang, M., Liu, J., Cui, Y., & Jiang, H. (2023). The association between diuretics and falls in older adults: A systematic review and meta-analysis. Geriatric Nursing, 52, 106–114. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.gerinurse.2023.05.009

Berry, C. (2022). Oliguria. MSD Manual Professional Version. https://www.merckmanuals.com/professional/critical-care-medicine/approach-to-the-critically-ill-patient/oliguria

Bond, G., Adnan, G., Dua, A., Singh, K., & Crew, C. M. (2022). Metolazone. StatPearls. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/books/NBK534203/

Dahiya, G., Bensimhon, D., Goodwin, M., Mohr, J., & Alexy, T. (2022). From oral to subcutaneous furosemide: The road to novel opportunities to manage congestion. Structural Heart, 6(4), 1000076. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.shj.2022.100076

DailyMed. (Updated December 11, 2021). Amiloride hydrochloride tablet. https://dailymed.nlm.nih.gov/dailymed/drugInfo.cfm?setid=2b70cf0c-45be-428f-b396-5001ed4e30fc

DailyMed. (Updated April 7, 2023). Bumetanide injection. https://dailymed.nlm.nih.gov/dailymed/drugInfo.cfm?setid=308c690f-c2bd-4c32-8728-42ec95425f77

DailyMed. (Updated December 27, 2022). Bumetanide tablet. https://dailymed.nlm.nih.gov/dailymed/drugInfo.cfm?setid=9188ab17-8539-48a5-905f-ad35ab5a0b93

DailyMed. (Updated May 31, 2023). Chlorothiazide—Chlorothiazide sodium injection, powder, lyophilized, for solution. https://dailymed.nlm.nih.gov/dailymed/drugInfo.cfm?setid=5b5d8a97-1428-4047-8e6c-b778429a26e4

DailyMed. (Updated October 11, 2023). Chlorthalidone-chlorthalidone tablet. https://dailymed.nlm.nih.gov/dailymed/drugInfo.cfm?setid=648f005f-1eae-4718-bc3a-2587d706fae2

DailyMed. (Updated February 6, 2007). Demadex—Torsemide tablet; Demadex—Torsemide injection, solution. https://dailymed.nlm.nih.gov/dailymed/drugInfo.cfm?setid=cf288ad5-d4e7-4b0b-bfd0-41c5327e6984

DailyMed. (Updated July 3, 2023). Dyrenium—Triamterene capsule. https://dailymed.nlm.nih.gov/dailymed/drugInfo.cfm?setid=ebb177c0-d45d-4443-a85a-e76bd9931a42

DailyMed. (Updated November 15, 2021). Eplerenone tablet, coated. https://dailymed.nlm.nih.gov/dailymed/drugInfo.cfm?setid=316d3a98-4cd1-4499-a34c-cac87e016944

DailyMed. (Updated November 30, 2023). Furoscix—furosemide injection 80 mg/10 ml injection. https://dailymed.nlm.nih.gov/dailymed/drugInfo.cfm?setid=eac958dd-8d43-e44e-e053-2995a90a4d5e

DailyMed. (Updated December 29, 2022). Furosemide-furosemide injection. https://dailymed.nlm.nih.gov/dailymed/drugInfo.cfm?setid=b39ad6b3-401d-4aba-a0a9-6d56fcfa0ac9

DailyMed. (Updated August 28, 2012). Furosemide-furosemide tablet. https://dailymed.nlm.nih.gov/dailymed/drugInfo.cfm?setid=79d9aef8-cfb9-4f6e-ac15-f830d7ea2324

DailyMed. (Updated December 28, 2018). Hydrochlorothiazide tablet. https://dailymed.nlm.nih.gov/dailymed/drugInfo.cfm?setid=b5a1b38c-0433-4649-a8b0-f72db0a96c45

DailyMed. (Updated August 15, 2023). Mannitol injection, solution. https://dailymed.nlm.nih.gov/dailymed/drugInfo.cfm?setid=d12cc802-b538-4065-a264-f474ff3b3043

DailyMed. (Updated August 21, 2023). Metolazone tablet. https://dailymed.nlm.nih.gov/dailymed/drugInfo.cfm?setid=51300edb-2b0f-427c-aeed-bc74a12f52ce

DailyMed. (Updated November 25, 2020). Spironolactone tablet. https://dailymed.nlm.nih.gov/dailymed/drugInfo.cfm?setid=fb66327e-8261-46ae-b39a-4fa79d520844

Dalal, R., Bruss, Z., & Sehdev, J. (2022). Physiology, renal blood flow and filtration. StatPearls. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/books/NBK482248/

Hegde, A. (2020). Diuretics in acute kidney injury. Indian Journal of Critical Care Medicine, 24(3), S98–S99. https://doi.org/10.5005%2Fjp-journals-10071-23406

Huxel, C., Raja, A., & Ollivierre, L. (2023). Loop diuretics. StatPearls. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/books/NBK546656/

Jo, W., Koh, E. S., & Chung, S. (2023). Therapeutic roles of thiazides and loop diuretics in blood pressure control and renal protection against chronic kidney disease.Clinical Hypertension,29(1), 14. https://doi.org/10.1186/s40885-023-00238-5

Kanderi, T., & Vaitla, P. (2023). Torsemide. StatPearls. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/books/NBK559175/

Khan, T., Patel, R., & Siddiqui, A. (2023). Furosemide. StatPearls. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/books/NBK499921/

Lee, T., Kuo, G., Chang, C., Huang, Y., Yen, C., Lee, C., Fan, P., & Chen, J. (2021). Diuretic effect of co-administration of furosemide and albumin in comparison to furosemide therapy alone: An updated systematic review and meta-analysis.PloS One,16(12), e0260312. https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0260312

Maddukuri, G. (2022). Evaluation of the renal patient. MSD Manual Professional Version. https://www.merckmanuals.com/professional/genitourinary-disorders/approach-to-the-genitourinary-patient/evaluation-of-the-renal-patient

Malik, A., Brito, D., Vagar, S., Chhabra, L., & Doerr, C. (2022). Congestive heart failure (nursing). StatPearls. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/books/NBK574497/

Padilla, O., & Abadie, J. (2022). Blood tests: Normal values. MSD Manual Professional Version. https://www.merckmanuals.com/professional/resources/normal-laboratory-values/blood-tests-normal-values

Patibandla, S., Heaton, J., & Kyaw, H. (2022). Spironolactone. StatPearls. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/books/NBK554421/

Shahbaz, H., & Gupta, M. (2023). Creatinine clearance. StatPearls. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/books/NBK544228/

Shi, J., Tan, L., Ye, J., & Hu, L. (2020). Hypertonic saline and mannitol in patients with traumatic brain injury: A systematic and meta-analysis.Medicine,99(35), e21655. https://doi.org/10.1097/MD.0000000000021655

Shin, D., Lee, E., Kim, J., Guerra, L., Naik, D., & Prida, X. (2019). Thiazides and skin cancers. Journal of Clinical Medicine Research, 11(4), 247–255. https://doi.org/10.14740/jocmr3744

Sidhu, G., & Puckett, Y. (2023). Bumetanide. StatPearls. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/books/NBK559181/

Simon, L., Hashmi, M., & Farrell, M. (2023). Hyperkalemia. StatPearls. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/books/NBK470284/

Teles, F., Peçanha de Miranda Coelho, J. A., Albino, R. M., Verçosa Pacheco, F. C., Rodrigues de Oliveira, E., Silveira, M. A. D., Diógenes M Feitosa, A., & Bezerra, R. (2023). Effectiveness of thiazide and thiazide-like diuretics in advanced chronic kidney disease: A systematic review and meta-analysis.Renal Failure,45(1), 2163903. https://doi.org/10.1080/0886022X.2022.2163903

Tenny, S., Patel, R., & Thorell, W. (2022). Mannitol. StatPearls. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/books/NBK470392/

Wilcox, C. S., Testani, J. M., & Pitt, B. (2020). Pathophysiology of diuretic resistance and its implications for the management of chronic heart failure. Hypertension, 76(4), 1045–1054. https://doi.org/10.1161/hypertensionaha.120.15205

Yifan, L., Li, Y., Li, L., Guo, Z., & Zhang, S. (2021). Comparative effectiveness of furosemide vs torsemide in symptomatic therapy in heart failure patients: A randomized controlled study protocol. Medicine (Baltimore), 100(7), e24661. https://doi.org/10.1097/md.0000000000024661

Chapter 35 Urinary and Bladder Disorder Drugs

Abbott, I. J., van Gorp, E., Wijma, R. A., Meletiadis, J., Roberts, J. A., Mouton, J. W., & Peleg, A. Y. (2020). Oral fosfomycin efficacy with variable urinary exposures following single and multiple doses against Enterobacterales: The importance of heteroresistance for growth outcome. Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy, 64(3), e01982-19. https://doi.org/10.1128/AAC.01982-19

Araklitis, G., Baines, G., da Silva, A. S., Robinson, D., & Cardozo, L. (2020). Recent advances in managing overactive bladder. F1000Research, 9, F1000 Faculty Rev-1125. https://doi.org/10.12688/f1000research.26607.1

DailyMed. (Updated December 29, 2022). Bethanechol chloride tablet. https://dailymed.nlm.nih.gov/dailymed/drugInfo.cfm?setid=45285692-de51-413e-8a51-7fb792eccc81

DailyMed. (Updated October 12, 2020). Detrol LAtolterodine tartrate capsule, extended release. https://dailymed.nlm.nih.gov/dailymed/drugInfo.cfm?setid=c98eb213-9c80-4698-9710-a9855059b8bb

DailyMed. (Updated January 7, 2019). Flavoxate hydrochloride tablet. https://dailymed.nlm.nih.gov/dailymed/drugInfo.cfm?setid=b4260d7e-2ab3-49f6-aa57-bae19a23d82a

DailyMed. (Updated September 1, 2022). Fosfomycin tromethamine granule, for solution. https://dailymed.nlm.nih.gov/dailymed/drugInfo.cfm?setid=48e352bc-52ea-4778-905a-60ef38a5c18a

DailyMed. (Updated December 15, 2022). Merbetriqmirabegron tablet, film coated, extended release. https://dailymed.nlm.nih.gov/dailymed/drugInfo.cfm?setid=aaaf3bea-1b21-4edf-9300-b7159ea9ede8

DailyMed. (Updated November 25, 2021). Methenamine hippurate-methenamine hippurate tablet. https://dailymed.nlm.nih.gov/dailymed/drugInfo.cfm?setid=e07ddd63-4725-49db-bec2-bd4f966c6e48

DailyMed. (Updated April 29, 2022). Nitrofurantoin-nitrofurantoin capsule. https://dailymed.nlm.nih.gov/dailymed/drugInfo.cfm?setid=c84e362d-cb6b-49c1-82eb-56b1fcf0f000

DailyMed. (Updated July 15, 2019). Oxybutynin chloride-oxybutynin chloride tablet. https://dailymed.nlm.nih.gov/dailymed/drugInfo.cfm?setid=8b369b71-fbeb-b41f-e053-2a95a90a4530

DailyMed. (Updated November 2, 2023). Oxytrol-oxybutynin patch. https://dailymed.nlm.nih.gov/dailymed/drugInfo.cfm?setid=20dee37f-1412-44ed-9e8b-f4379ce23eb0

DailyMed. (Updated December 21, 2021). Phenazopyridine hydrochloride 200 MGphenazopyridine hydrochloride tablet. https://dailymed.nlm.nih.gov/dailymed/drugInfo.cfm?setid=6ffd238d-cef1-46c8-bff3-83887fcdf33b

DailyMed. (Updated December 15, 2020). Solifenacin succinate tablet, film coated. https://dailymed.nlm.nih.gov/dailymed/drugInfo.cfm?setid=d155c739-6870-4938-ba91-8c1b4b90afe4

DailyMed. (Updated July 3, 2021). Sulfamethoxazole and trimethoprim tablet. https://dailymed.nlm.nih.gov/dailymed/drugInfo.cfm?setid=1b5de94f-973a-4b5a-91d7-45e05be78650

DailyMed. (Updated May 22, 2023). Tadalafil tablet. https://dailymed.nlm.nih.gov/dailymed/drugInfo.cfm?setid=7e4cdac1-42cc-4038-a86b-4890962ed806

DailyMed. (Updated October 11, 2022). Tolterodine tartrate tablet, film coated. https://dailymed.nlm.nih.gov/dailymed/drugInfo.cfm?setid=d27e25b5-5d02-419f-b098-41fb162c5872

DailyMed. (Updated September 3, 2020). Trospium chloride tablet, film coated. https://dailymed.nlm.nih.gov/dailymed/drugInfo.cfm?setid=6a711666-9e80-4728-b745-e7dc86f57510

Dwyer, J., Tafuri, S. M., & LaGrange, C. A. (2022). Oxybutynin. StatPearls. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/books/NBK499985/

Eastham, J. H., & Patel, P. (2022). Phenazopyridine. StatPearls. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/books/NBK580545/

Heltveit-Olsen, S. R., Sundvall, P. D., Gunnarsson, R., Snaebjörnsson Arnljots, E., Kowalczyk, A., Godycki-Cwirko, M., Platteel, T. N., Koning, H. A. M., Groen, W. G., Åhrén, C., Grude, N., Verheij, T. J. M., Hertogh, C. M. P. M., Lindbaek, M., & Hoye, S. (2022). Methenamine hippurate to prevent recurrent urinary tract infections in older women: Protocol for a randomised, placebo-controlled trial (ImpresU). BMJ Open, 12(11), e065217. https://doi.org/10.1136/bmjopen-2022-065217

Kemnic, T. R., & Coleman, M. (2022). Trimethoprim sulfamethoxazole. StatPearls. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/books/NBK513232/

Loloi, J., Clearwater, W., Schulz, A., Suadicani, S. O., & Abraham, N. (2022). Medical treatment of overactive bladder. Urologic Clinics, 49(2), 249–261. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ucl.2021.12.005

Narain, S., & Parmar, M. (2023). Tolterodine. StatPearls. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/books/NBK557858/

O’Kane, M., Robinson, D., Cardozo, L., Wagg, A., & Abrams, P. (2022). Mirabegron in the management of overactive bladder syndrome. International Journal of Women’s Health, 14, 1337–1350. https://doi.org/10.2147/IJWH.S372597

Padda, I. S., & Derian, A. (2022). Bethanechol. StatPearls. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/books/NBK560587/

Squadrito, F. J., & del Portal, D. (2023). Nitrofurantoin. StatPearls. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/books/NBK470526/

Chapter 36 Reproductive Health Drugs

AIM at Melanoma Foundation. (n.d.). What is ultraviolet radiation? https://www.aimatmelanoma.org/melanoma-101/prevention/what-is-ultraviolet-uv-radiation/

Andersen, C. H., & Spanfeller, J. (2022). Everything you need to know about all 5 IUD options, according to ob-gyns. Women’s Health Magazine. https://www.womenshealthmag.com/health/a19944755/iud/

Britton, L. E., Alspaugh, A., Greene, M, Z., & McLemore, M. R. (2020). An evidence-based update on contraception: A detailed review of hormonal and nonhormonal methods. American Journal of Nursing, 120(2), 22–33. doi:10.1097/01.NAJ.0000654304.29632.a7

Carson, S. A., & Kallen, A. N. (2021). Diagnosis and management of infertility: A review. Journal of the American Medical Association, 326(1), 65–76. https://doi.org/10.1001/jama.2021.4788

Casey, F. E. (2022). Family planning. Merck Manual. https://www.merckmanuals.com/professional/gynecology-and-obstetrics/family-planning

Casteel, C. O., & Singh, G. (2023). Physiology, gonadotropin-releasing hormone. StatPearls. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/books/NBK558992/

Center for Devices and Radiological Health. (2018). FDA approves new vagin*l ring for one year of birth control. U.S. Food and Drug Administration. https://www.fda.gov/news-events/press-announcements/fda-approves-new-vagin*l-ring-one-year-birth-control

Chegeni, R., Pallesen, S., McVeigh, J., & Sagoe, D. (2021). Anabolic-androgenic steroid administration increases self-reported aggression in healthy males: A systematic review and meta-analysis of experimental studies. Psychopharmacology, 238, 1911–1922. https://doi.org/10.1007/s00213-021-05818-7

Cooper, D. B., Mahdy, H., & Patel, P. (2020). Oral contraceptive pills. StatPearls. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/books/NBK430882/

DailyMed. (Updated November 12, 2023). Alendronate-alendronate sodium tablet. https://dailymed.nlm.nih.gov/dailymed/drugInfo.cfm?setid=a24fd39c-34a7-4de2-9439-781e612189ca

DailyMed. (Updated July 20, 2012). Alfuzosin hydrochloride tablet. https://dailymed.nlm.nih.gov/dailymed/drugInfo.cfm?setid=30f97b8e-4486-4b5f-896a-d7dfa1e2e33a

DailyMed. (Updated May 18, 2020). Androderm-testosterone patch. https://dailymed.nlm.nih.gov/dailymed/drugInfo.cfm?setid=e58a5328-fdd9-40cb-a19f-8ed798989b9c

DailyMed. (Updated March 17, 2023). Ashlyna-levonorgestrel and ethinyl estradiol and ethinyl estradiol kit. https://dailymed.nlm.nih.gov/dailymed/drugInfo.cfm?setid=407a9f63-9abf-4886-864a-d3dd0e429762

DailyMed. (Updated June 14, 2023). Aurovela 24FE-norethindrone acetate and ethinyl estradiol and ferrous fumarate kit. https://dailymed.nlm.nih.gov/dailymed/drugInfo.cfm?setid=3eb092dc-2ec1-4d55-b1fe-69505608e04a

DailyMed. (Updated October 8, 2022). Azurette-desogestrel/ethinyl estradiol and ethinyl estradiol kit. https://dailymed.nlm.nih.gov/dailymed/drugInfo.cfm?setid=bff09a7b-aea6-460b-a263-44576e00f510

DailyMed. (Updated October 20, 2022). Bicalutamide tablet. https://dailymed.nlm.nih.gov/dailymed/drugInfo.cfm?setid=7c295b64-ec39-42ec-9f02-da5b42e775e1

DailyMed. (Updated November 28, 2022). Cabergoline tablet. https://dailymed.nlm.nih.gov/dailymed/drugInfo.cfm?setid=e497366b-a124-4d7f-bd45-a883c392d4bb

DailyMed. (Updated October 19, 2022). Carboprost tromethamine injection. https://dailymed.nlm.nih.gov/dailymed/drugInfo.cfm?setid=f0b2d3f9-859a-47bb-866c-082717d1f190

DailyMed. (Updated February 4, 2022). Cetrotide – cetrorelix acetate kit. https://dailymed.nlm.nih.gov/dailymed/drugInfo.cfm?setid=aca7768e-28a7-4027-b1d8-e66247665f79

DailyMed. (Updated June 8, 2022). Clomiphene citrate tablet. https://dailymed.nlm.nih.gov/dailymed/drugInfo.cfm?setid=bea52e8e-b25c-438f-b046-ccf2fe82bca5

DailyMed. (Updated August 18, 2020). Depo-testosterone-testosterone cypionate injection, solution. https://dailymed.nlm.nih.gov/dailymed/drugInfo.cfm?setid=735b5bf3-4464-412c-a072-1bd02f2e5380

DailyMed. (Updated November 30, 2021). Doxazosin-doxazosin mesylate tablet. https://dailymed.nlm.nih.gov/dailymed/drugInfo.cfm?setid=0aaa68a7-f73b-46d8-860f-a76d96897489

DailyMed. (Updated May 10, 2016). Drospirenone and ethinyl estradiol-drospirenone and ethinyl estradiol kit. https://dailymed.nlm.nih.gov/dailymed/drugInfo.cfm?setid=def63ddd-27e4-4e90-b0ac-2994b169c896

DailyMed. (Updated August 21, 2023). Dutasteride capsule. https://dailymed.nlm.nih.gov/dailymed/drugInfo.cfm?setid=e537c60d-9ba2-4e7f-a405-2b915dcd7ead

DailyMed. (Updated November 1, 2023). Ella-ulipristal acetate tablet. https://dailymed.nlm.nih.gov/dailymed/drugInfo.cfm?setid=2bf93d23-cddd-4613-9066-5b5fa090404b

DailyMed. (Updated September 30, 2021). Estradiol transdermal system-estradiol patch. https://dailymed.nlm.nih.gov/dailymed/drugInfo.cfm?setid=c714974b-766f-42f2-a846-b0c1f5a60560

DailyMed. (Updated November 1, 2021). Estradiol tablet. https://dailymed.nlm.nih.gov/dailymed/drugInfo.cfm?setid=9333d92f-2585-4b99-aaea-87c01c95125e

DailyMed. (Updated July 30, 2021). Estradiol vagin*l cream-estradiol cream. https://dailymed.nlm.nih.gov/dailymed/drugInfo.cfm?setid=c895ac14-5dbd-4201-bf3e-ba7c38a4e994

DailyMed. (Updated March 14, 2012). Estropipate tablet. https://dailymed.nlm.nih.gov/dailymed/drugInfo.cfm?setid=03cdbf5b-b572-448f-80e9-b3e812959901

DailyMed. (Updated February 17, 2023). Finasteride tablet, coated. https://dailymed.nlm.nih.gov/dailymed/drugInfo.cfm?setid=ecd2fbb2-a4bd-44f2-831d-179e7dbf0741

DailyMed. (Updated April 28, 2023). Finasteride tablet, film coated. https://dailymed.nlm.nih.gov/dailymed/drugInfo.cfm?setid=9b38c8c7-01e4-45d0-b4ee-3546d9ad849c

DailyMed. (Updated June 1, 2022). Follistim AQ-follitropin injection, solution. https://dailymed.nlm.nih.gov/dailymed/drugInfo.cfm?setid=96f11b5d-cc7b-48aa-830a-a28e1962d871

DailyMed. (Updated February 6, 2006). Halotestin-fluoxymesterone tablet. https://dailymed.nlm.nih.gov/dailymed/drugInfo.cfm?setid=09bafc2d-1893-4618-86dc-e9403407cd41

DailyMed. (Updated September 12, 2022). Ibandronate sodium injection. https://dailymed.nlm.nih.gov/dailymed/drugInfo.cfm?setid=9fad4982-95af-d711-f50a-867311835143

DailyMed. (Updated April 1, 2022). Ibandronate sodium tablet. https://dailymed.nlm.nih.gov/dailymed/drugInfo.cfm?setid=acbc54fc-4248-416f-849c-2cd3bed0a843

DailyMed. (Updated March 13, 2023). Kyleena-levonorgestrel intrauterine device. https://dailymed.nlm.nih.gov/dailymed/drugInfo.cfm?setid=2e07c155-21e1-4781-9633-ce8bddd47080

DailyMed. (Updated February 9, 2023). Levonorgestrel tablet. https://dailymed.nlm.nih.gov/dailymed/drugInfo.cfm?setid=07567b80-d8a1-41c0-95e4-33afa584bbc4

DailyMed. (Updated June 29, 2023). Liletta-levonorgestrel intrauterine device. https://dailymed.nlm.nih.gov/dailymed/drugInfo.cfm?setid=aaf0eb2a-f88a-4f26-a445-0fd30176c326

DailyMed. (Updated December 6, 2022). Magnesium sulfate in 5% dextrose – magnesium sulfate heptahydrate injection, solution. https://dailymed.nlm.nih.gov/dailymed/drugInfo.cfm?setid=fdffb339-89d1-4495-97b7-d9422d68b3d5

DailyMed. (Updated December 14, 2022). Medroxyprogesterone acetate injection, suspension. https://dailymed.nlm.nih.gov/dailymed/drugInfo.cfm?setid=908573ce-d494-4f7f-95ae-6edbc4e4c5dc

DailyMed. (Updated December 7, 2021). Menopur-menotropins kit. https://dailymed.nlm.nih.gov/dailymed/drugInfo.cfm?setid=22c8db95-c3db-1770-8086-31356fbabe35

DailyMed. (Updated May 19, 2020). Methylergonovine maleate injection. https://dailymed.nlm.nih.gov/dailymed/drugInfo.cfm?setid=8bccff44-2a39-400a-b8a4-2eb5249fdbc8

DailyMed. (Updated May 27, 2019). Methyltestosterone capsule. https://dailymed.nlm.nih.gov/dailymed/drugInfo.cfm?setid=9bed4886-fcd0-4056-be8d-5bb4d15081ce

DailyMed. (Updated March 30, 2023). Mifepristone tablet. https://dailymed.nlm.nih.gov/dailymed/drugInfo.cfm?setid=b63fad9b-7f12-4400-9019-b0586054e534

DailyMed. (Updated August 12, 2022). Mirena-levonorgestrel intrauterine device. https://dailymed.nlm.nih.gov/dailymed/drugInfo.cfm?setid=dcbd6aa2-b3fa-479a-a676-56ea742962fc

DailyMed. (Updated November 18, 2022). Nexplanon - etonogestrel implant. https://dailymed.nlm.nih.gov/dailymed/drugInfo.cfm?setid=487f8a62-e142-457c-97cc-2e398fde7594

DailyMed. (Updated December 6, 2018). Norethindrone acetate tablet. https://dailymed.nlm.nih.gov/dailymed/drugInfo.cfm?setid=d0a94321-eb60-4aa6-a429-f0156f9f8e01

DailyMed. (Updated January 9, 2023). Nuvaring - etonogestrel and ethinyl estradiol insert, extended release. https://dailymed.nlm.nih.gov/dailymed/drugInfo.cfm?setid=55eb60e3-6f4d-40a3-8ee6-e7fd2d0c7d97

DailyMed. (Updated February 2, 2022). Ovidrel-choriogonadotropin alfa injection, solution. https://dailymed.nlm.nih.gov/dailymed/drugInfo.cfm?setid=a683e58a-63ea-44b8-a326-1a99a537bcf2

DailyMed. (Updated March 7, 2022). Oxandrolone tablet. https://dailymed.nlm.nih.gov/dailymed/drugInfo.cfm?setid=a6f42739-5bfc-4b76-8795-e93fa58f3d29

DailyMed. (Updated December 30, 2019). Oxytocin injection. https://dailymed.nlm.nih.gov/dailymed/drugInfo.cfm?setid=a9b62187-4141-487c-a9da-f42ad7f9b408

DailyMed. (Updated September 24, 2014). Raloxifene hydrochloride tablet. https://dailymed.nlm.nih.gov/dailymed/drugInfo.cfm?setid=8f4fe353-c5de-44ba-9c68-b75a185f7dc5f

DailyMed. (Updated July 7, 2022). Reclast-zoledronic acid injection, solution. https://dailymed.nlm.nih.gov/dailymed/drugInfo.cfm?setid=3c79ff9c-a6f4-405d-b19c-7e473a61dedc

DailyMed. (Updated November 16, 2022). Risedronate sodium tablet, film coated. https://dailymed.nlm.nih.gov/dailymed/drugInfo.cfm?setid=b90f2e5b-10b8-29a7-0360-31bd0dae0ec2

DailyMed. (Updated November 24, 2021). Silodosin capsule. https://dailymed.nlm.nih.gov/dailymed/drugInfo.cfm?setid=e863be56-d303-43bb-915a-1b2568674e31

DailyMed. (Updated January 31, 2023). Skyla-levonorgestrel intrauterine device. https://dailymed.nlm.nih.gov/dailymed/drugInfo.cfm?setid=9f44ff35-e052-49cd-a1c2-0bfd87d49309

DailyMed. (Updated May 18, 2023). Stendraavanafil tablet. https://dailymed.nlm.nih.gov/dailymed/drugInfo.cfm?setid=fa7d93e3-b69b-4e02-8146-89760cd8e9d6

DailyMed. (Updated May 22, 2023). Tadalafil tablet. https://dailymed.nlm.nih.gov/dailymed/drugInfo.cfm?setid=7e4cdac1-42cc-4038-a86b-4890962ed806

DailyMed. (Updated March 31, 2021). Tamsulosin hydrochloride capsule. https://dailymed.nlm.nih.gov/dailymed/drugInfo.cfm?setid=339c3b57-a339-4578-bfd7-46b25d911ff6

DailyMed. (Updated February 9, 2023). Terazosin capsule. https://dailymed.nlm.nih.gov/dailymed/drugInfo.cfm?setid=da4ca0f8-6888-447e-9948-d37196c5a19a

DailyMed. (Updated August 20, 2020). Toremifene citrate tablet. https://dailymed.nlm.nih.gov/dailymed/drugInfo.cfm?setid=0b3ebaa6-9cbe-405e-8f14-14ce8dcd2a68

DailyMed. (Updated March 22, 2023). Vardenafil hydrochloride tablet, film coated. https://dailymed.nlm.nih.gov/dailymed/drugInfo.cfm?setid=d2dce236-257e-44b6-93a9-9f0280257c6a

DailyMed. (Updated December 19, 2019). Viagra-sildenafil citrate tablet, film coated. https://dailymed.nlm.nih.gov/dailymed/drugInfo.cfm?setid=47af30e9-a189-4721-8c8f-652256df75a1

Dhaliwal, A., & Gupta, M. (2023, April 10). PDE5 inhibitors. StatPearls. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/books/NBK549843/

Fink, H. A. (2019, April 1). Introduction: Long-term drug therapy and drug holidays for osteoporosis fracture prevention: A systematic review. NCBI Bookshelf. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/books/NBK542722/

Freedland, S., & Abrahamsson, P. (2021). Androgen deprivation therapy and side effects: Are GnRH antagonists safer? Asian Journal of Andrology, 23(1), 3–10. https://doi.org/10.4103/aja.aja_22_20

Ganesan, K., Goyal, A., & Roane, D. (2022). Bisphosphonate. StatPearls. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/books/NBK470248/

Ganesan, K., Rahman, S., & Zito, P. M. (2023). Anabolic steroids. StatPearls. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/books/NBK482418/

GBD 2019 Benign Prostatic Hyperplasia Collaborators. (2022). The global, regional, and national burden of benign prostatic hyperplasia in 204 countries and territories from 2000 to 2019: A systematic analysis for the Global Burden of Disease Study 2019. The Lancet Healthy Longevity, 3(11), e754–e776. https://doi.org/10.1016/s2666-7568(22)00213-6

Hariri, L., & Rahman, A. (2023). Estradiol. StatPearls. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/books/NBK549797/

Hoare, B. S., & Kahn, Y. (2023). Anatomy, abdomen and pelvis: Female internal genitals. StatPearls. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/books/NBK554601/

Madden, T. (2023, July 12). Intrauterine contraception: Background and device types. UpToDate. https://www.uptodate.com/contents/intrauterine-contraception-background-and-device-types

Madhumati, S., & Gonegandla, G. (2020). Bisphosphonate-induced osteonecrosis of the jaws (BIONJ). Journal of Maxillofacial and Oral Surgery, 19(2), 162–167. https://doi.org/10.1007/s12663-019-01211-2

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Mayo Clinic. (2023a, January 13). Combination birth control pills. https://www.mayoclinic.org/tests-procedures/combination-birth-control-pills/about/pac-20385282

Mayo Clinic. (2023b, May 23). Perimenopause: Symptoms and causes. https://www.mayoclinic.org/diseases-conditions/perimenopause/symptoms-causes/syc-20354666

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Nassar, G. N. (2023). Physiology, testosterone. StatPearls. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/books/NBK526128/

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Sakamoto, R. (2019). Sunlight in vitamin D deficiency: Clinical implications. The Journal for Nurse Practitioners, 15, 282–285. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.nurpra.2019.01.014

Salisbury, B. H., & Tadi, P. (2023, April 14). 5-alpha-reductase inhibitors. StatPearls. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/books/NBK555930/

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Zareef, T., & Jackson, R. (2021). Knowledge and attitudes about vitamin D and sunlight exposure in premenopausal women living in Jeddah, and their relationship with serum vitamin D levels. Journal of Health, Population and Nutrition, 40(38). https://doi.org/10.1186/s41043-021-00263-w

Chapter 37 Transgender and Nonbinary Drugs

Annie E. Casey Foundation. (2023).Defining LGBTQ terms and concepts. https://www.aecf.org/blog/lgbtq-definitions/

Barredo, J. O. (2020). Room assignments, gender identity, and gender expression: A case study on caring for transgender patients. MedSurg Nursing, 29(4), 237–244.

Behrens, K.G. 2020. A principled ethical approach to intersex paediatric surgeries. BMC Med Ethics 21, 108. https://doi.org/10.1186/s12910-020-00550-x

Boston University Chobanian & Avedisian School of Medicine. (n.d.). Practical guidelines for transgender hormone treatment. https://www.bumc.bu.edu/endo/clinics/transgender-medicine/guidelines/

Brooker, A. S., & Loshak, H. (2020).Gender affirming therapy for gender dysphoria: A rapid qualitative review, Project Number RC1266-000. Canadian Agency for Drugs and Technologies in Health. https://www.cadth.ca/gender-affirming-therapy-gender-dysphoria-rapid-qualitative-review

Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. (2023).Transgender persons. https://www.cdc.gov/lgbthealth/transgender.htm

Coleman, E., Radix, A. E., Bouman, W. P., Brown, G. R., de Vries, A. L. C., Deutsch, M. B., Ettner, R., Fraser, L., Goodman, M., Green, J., Hanco*ck, A. B., Johnson, T. W., Karasic, D. H., Knudson, G. A., Leibowitz, S. F., Meyer-Bahlburg, H. F. L., Monstrey, S. J., Motmans, J., Nahata, L., Nieder, T. O., … Arcelus, J. (2022). Standards of care for the health of transgender and gender diverse people, version 8. International Journal of Transgender Health, 23(Suppl 1), S1–S259. https://doi.org/10.1080/26895269.2022.2100644

DailyMed. (Updated May 18, 2020). Androderm—Testosterone patch. https://dailymed.nlm.nih.gov/dailymed/drugInfo.cfm?setid=e58a5328-fdd9-40cb-a19f-8ed798989b9c

DailyMed. (Updated November 1, 2020). Androgel—Testosterone gel. https://dailymed.nlm.nih.gov/dailymed/drugInfo.cfm?setid=8677ba5b-8374-46cb-854c-403972e9ddf3

DailyMed. (Updated August 24, 2021). Aveed—Testosterone undecanoate injection. https://dailymed.nlm.nih.gov/dailymed/drugInfo.cfm?setid=f80f025b-17d8-40af-8739-20ce07902045

DailyMed. (Updated March 3, 2023). Danazol capsule. https://dailymed.nlm.nih.gov/dailymed/drugInfo.cfm?setid=55ad6325-16f6-4f0c-a1dc-734847052d0b

DailyMed. (Updated November 1, 2021). Estradiol tablet. https://dailymed.nlm.nih.gov/dailymed/drugInfo.cfm?setid=9333d92f-2585-4b99-aaea-87c01c95125e

DailyMed. (Updated December 12, 2018). Finasteride tablet. https://dailymed.nlm.nih.gov/dailymed/drugInfo.cfm?setid=81b424d3-8418-4497-9395-59eae6755230

DailyMed. (Updated April 27, 2022). Leuprolide acetate kit. https://dailymed.nlm.nih.gov/dailymed/drugInfo.cfm?setid=19afe51a-3b2d-4286-ad32-992a34bba648

DailyMed. (Updated November 20, 2020). Medroxyprogesterone acetate tablet. https://dailymed.nlm.nih.gov/dailymed/drugInfo.cfm?setid=2627eb11-06bf-4a45-9172-094468e3ca07

DailyMed. (Updated January 20, 2023). Spironolactone tablet, film coated. https://dailymed.nlm.nih.gov/dailymed/drugInfo.cfm?setid=c23b6b9b-aec3-48a8-a518-76e4097f6479

DailyMed. (Updated August 24, 2018). Testopel—Testosterone pellet. https://dailymed.nlm.nih.gov/dailymed/drugInfo.cfm?setid=03b9c0b1-5884-11e4-8ed6-0800200c9a66

DailyMed. (Updated October 31, 2018). Testosterone cypionate injection. https://dailymed.nlm.nih.gov/dailymed/drugInfo.cfm?setid=d7b57b68-dca6-4df2-b3f2-7017d7b69f17

DailyMed. (Updated November 12, 2021). Testosterone enanthate injection, solution. https://dailymed.nlm.nih.gov/dailymed/drugInfo.cfm?setid=e89d6458-428c-4256-97a3-f1fa851293c1

Davis, Georgiann. The Power in a Name: Diagnostic Terminology and Diverse Experiences. Psychology & Sexuality 5, no. 1 (2014): 15–27. doi:10.1080/19419899.2013.831212.

Deutsch, M. B. (2016). Overview of feminizing hormone therapy. University of California San Francisco Transgender Care Navigation Program. https://transcare.ucsf.edu/guidelines/feminizing-hormone-therapy

Dickerson, S. (2022). Nursing care for transgender and nonbinary patients: An educational model for forensic nurse examiners. Doctor of Nursing Practice Projects, 42. https://scholarworks.seattleu.edu/dnp-projects/42

Gonzales, G., & Henning-Smith, C. (2017). Barriers to care among transgender and gender nonconforming adults. Milbank Quarterly, 95(4), 726–748. https://doi.org/10.1111/1468-0009.12297

Hembree, W. C., Cohen-Kettenis, P. T., Gooren, L., Hannema, S. E., Meyer, W. J., Murad, M. H., Rosenthal, S. M., Safer, J. D., Tangpricha, V., & T’Sjoen, G. G. (2017). Endocrine treatment of gender-dysphoric/gender-incongruent persons: An Endocrine Society clinical practice guideline.Journal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism,102(11), 3869–3903. https://doi.org/10.1210/jc.2017-01658

Hruz, P. W. (2020). Deficiencies in scientific evidence for medical management of gender dysphoria. Linacre Quarterly, 87(1), 34–42. https://doi.org/10.1177/0024363919873762

International Society for Sexual Medicine. (n.d.).What is the difference between transsexual and transgender? https://www.issm.info/sexual-health-qa/what-is-the-difference-between-transsexual-and-transgender

Kinney, M. K., & Cosgrove, D. (2022). “Truly listen to us”: Recommendations for health professionals to bolster wellbeing of nonbinary individuals. International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health, 19, 1–22. https://doi.org/10.3390%2Fijerph19159032

Kirkland, A., Talesh, S., & Perone, A. K. (2021). Health insurance rights and access to health care for trans people: The social construction of medical necessity. Law and Society Review, 55(4), 539–562. https://doi.org/10.1111/lasr.12575

Klein, D. (2023). Caring for military-affiliated transgender and gender-diverse youths: A call for protections. American Journal of Public Health, 113(3), 251–255. https://ajph.aphapublications.org/doi/10.2105/AJPH.2022.307163

Matsuda, J. (2022). Leave them kids alone: State constitutional protections for gender-affirming healthcare. Washington & Lee Law Review, 79(4), 1597–1654. https://scholarlycommons.law.wlu.edu/cgi/viewcontent.cgi?article=4796&context=wlulr

Mayo Clinic. (2021a, March 18).Feminizing hormone therapy. https://www.mayoclinic.org/tests-procedures/feminizing-hormone-therapy/about/pac-20385096

Mayo Clinic. (2021b, July 21).Masculinizing hormone therapy. https://www.mayoclinic.org/tests-procedures/masculinizing-hormone-therapy/about/pac-20385099

Milionis, C., Koukkou, E., & Ilias, I. (2022). Conundrums in the medical treatment of transgender persons. Endocrine, Metabolic & Immune Disorders, 22, 795–797. https://doi.org/10.2174/1871530322666220223161227

Mount Sinai. (n.d.-a). Trans-masculine (female to male) surgeries. https://www.mountsinai.org/locations/center-transgender-medicine-surgery/care/surgery/female-to-male

Mount Sinai. (n.d.-b). Trans-feminine (male-to-female) surgeries. https://www.mountsinai.org/locations/center-transgender-medicine-surgery/care/surgery/male-to-female

National Center for Transgender Equality. (2016, July 9). Frequently asked questions about transgender people. https://transequality.org/issues/resources/frequently-asked-questions-about-transgender-people

Rafferty, J., Committee on Psychosocial Aspects of Child and Family Health; Committee on Adolescence; Section on Lesbian, Gay, Bisexual, and Transgender Health and Wellness. (2018). Ensuring comprehensive care and support for transgender and gender-diverse children and adolescents. Pediatrics, 142(4), e20182162. https://doi.org/10.1542/peds.2023-063756

Ramsay, A., & Safer, J. D. (2023). Update in adult transgender medicine. Annual Review of Medicine, 74, 117–124. https://doi.org/10.1146/annurev-med-020222-121106

Rodriguez-Wallberg, K., Obedin-Maliverd, J., Taylor, B., Van Mellog, N., Tilleman, K., & Nahatai, L. (2022). Reproductive health in transgender and gender diverse individuals: A narrative review to guide clinical care and international guidelines.International Journal of Transgender Health,24(1), 7–25. https://doi.org/10.1080/26895269.2022.2035883

Sandberg DE, Gardner M. IDifferences/Disorders of Sex Development: Medical Conditions at the Intersection of Sex and Gender. Annu Rev Clin Psychol. 2022 May 9;18:201-231. doi: 10.1146/annurev-clinpsy-081219-101412.

Selby, A. (2022). How to identify and treat gender dysphoria. Healthline. https://www.healthline.com/health/gender-dysphoria

Sirufo, M. M., Magnanimi, L. M., Ginaldi, L., & De Martinis, M. (2022). Breaking down barriers to facilitate access to healthcare among transgender people. The Journal of Adolescent Health, 71(6), 768–769. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jadohealth.2022.07.010

T’Sjoen, G., Arcelus, J., Gooren, L., Klink, D. T., & Tangpricha, V. (2019). Endocrinology of transgender medicine. Endocrinology Review, 40(1), 97–117. https://doi.org/10.1210/er.2018-00011

Unger, C. A. (2016). Hormone therapy for transgender patients.Translational Andrology and Urology,5(6), 877–884. https://doi.org/10.21037/tau.2016.09.04

Warne GL, Grover S, Zajac JD. Hormonal therapies for individuals with intersex conditions: protocol for use. Treat Endocrinol. 2005;4(1):19-29. doi: 10.2165/00024677-200504010-00003.

Webb, A., McManus, D., Rouse, G. E., Vonderheyde, R., & Topal, J. E. (2020). Implications for medication dosing for transgender patients: Areview of the literature and recommendations for pharmacists. American Journal of Health-System Pharmacists, 77(6), 427–433. https://doi.org/10.1093/ajhp/zxz355

Zaliznyak, M., Bresee, C., & Garcia, M. M. (2020). Age at first experience of gender dysphoria among transgender adults seeking gender-affirming surgery.JAMA Network Open,3(3), e201236. https://doi.org/10.1001/jamanetworkopen.2020.1236

Chapter 38 Ophthalmic Drugs

Ahmad, S. S. (2018). Glaucoma suspects: A practical approach. Taiwan Journal of Ophthalmology, 2, 74–81. https://doi.org/10.4103/tjo.tjo_106_17

American Academy of Ophthalmology. (2022, September). What is the different between a stye and a chalazion? https://aao.org/eye-health/diseases/what-are-chalazia-styes

American Optometric Association. (n.d.). Diet and nutrition. https://www.aoa.org/healthy-eyes/caring-for-your-eyes/diet-and-nutrition?sso=y

American Society of Retina Specialists. (2023). Retina health services. https://www.asrs.org/patients/retinal-diseases/26/retinal-tears

Begum, J. (2023). Ocular hypertension. WebMD. https://www.webmd.com/eye-health/occular-hypertension

Boyd, K. (2022a). What is astigmatism? Symptoms, causes, diagnoses, treatment. American Academy of Ophthalmology. https://www.aao.org/eye-health/diseases/what-is-astigmatism

Boyd, K. (2022b). What is glaucoma? Symptoms, causes, diagnosis, treatment. American Academy of Ophthalmology. https://www.aao.org/eye-health/diseases/what-is-glaucoma

Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. (2019). Conjunctivitis (pink eye). https://www.cdc.gov/conjunctivitis/about/treatment.html

Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. (2020). Keep an eye on your vision health. https://www.cdc.gov/visionhealth/resources/features/keep-eye-on-vision-health.html

Cleveland Clinic. (2023a). Artificial tears eye ointment. https://my.clevelandclinic.org/health/drugs/18594-artificial-tears-eye-ointment

Cleveland Clinic. (2023b). Natamycin eye suspension. https://my.clevelandclinic.org/health/drugs/20370-natamycin-eye-suspension

College of Optometrists. (2023). Conjunctivitis medicamentosa (also dermatoconjunctivitis medicamentosa). https://www.college-optometrists.org/clinical-guidance/clinical-management-guidelines/conjunctivitismedicamentosa_alsodermatoconjunctivi

DailyMed. (Updated April 1, 2021). Artificial tears glycerin and propylene glycol solution/drops. https://dailymed.nlm.nih.gov/dailymed/drugInfo.cfm?setid=99cfea82-afb8-4c5f-ac0c-492204a42c08

DailyMed. (Updated October 31, 2023). Betaxolol hydrochloride solution/drops. https://dailymed.nlm.nih.gov/dailymed/drugInfo.cfm?setid=a73519d5-546c-4377-92ed-0d4be2685d60

DailyMed. (Updated March 7, 2022). Bimatoprost solution/drops. https://dailymed.nlm.nih.gov/dailymed/drugInfo.cfm?setid=ce5c7f22-ade3-41ea-8dd8-3ec0399d3279

DailyMed. (Updated April 4, 2023). Brimonidine tartrate ophthalmic solution, 0.15% solution/drops. https://dailymed.nlm.nih.gov/dailymed/drugInfo.cfm?setid=a52b2033-0333-4630-9b1f-e22918b0962c

DailyMed. (Updated July 7, 2023). Brinzolamide suspension/drops. https://dailymed.nlm.nih.gov/dailymed/drugInfo.cfm?setid=37b19837-fcab-4536-abad-6f4f92dfe794

DailyMed. (Updated August 31, 2021). Carteolol hydrochloride solution. https://dailymed.nlm.nih.gov/dailymed/drugInfo.cfm?setid=571fe550-399d-4296-835c-37aa1ab9b409

DailyMed. (Updated June 27, 2023). Ciloxan-ciprofloxacin hydrochloride ointment. https://dailymed.nlm.nih.gov/dailymed/drugInfo.cfm?setid=7b557d15-bd97-42d2-adcb-d172b4216cb6

DailyMed. (Updated October 28, 2022). Ciprofloxacin hydrochloride ophthalmic solution. https://dailymed.nlm.nih.gov/dailymed/drugInfo.cfm?setid=41363a06-d6f5-4bc6-b0e9-34e5616ae387

DailyMed. (Updated August 3, 2022). Dexamethasone sodium phosphate solution/drops. https://dailymed.nlm.nih.gov/dailymed/drugInfo.cfm?setid=6bdcefbe-51e3-4ca4-afda-5aeca7b6fa73

DailyMed. (Updated June 30, 2022). Diclofenac sodium solution/drops. https://dailymed.nlm.nih.gov/dailymed/drugInfo.cfm?setid=39dfffb0-612a-48f3-8db5-1a59899b91e9

DailyMed. (Updated November 26, 2021). Dorzolamide hydrochloride ophthalmic solution solution/drops. https://dailymed.nlm.nih.gov/dailymed/drugInfo.cfm?setid=4698e4e1-c5f6-4db1-9328-74464a85afea

DailyMed. (Updated May 16, 2023). Erythromycin ointment. https://dailymed.nlm.nih.gov/dailymed/drugInfo.cfm?setid=061ddd20-94a6-4e3c-ba84-1ebd8529eea6

DailyMed. (Updated January 28, 2022). Gentak-gentamicin sulfate ointment. https://dailymed.nlm.nih.gov/dailymed/drugInfo.cfm?setid=a357d23d-1f10-44ce-a2fa-a6a5e03e7739

DailyMed. (Updated June 17, 2022). Gentamicin sulfate opth solution/drops. https://dailymed.nlm.nih.gov/dailymed/drugInfo.cfm?setid=e1a5bc32-f9a0-6b33-e053-2995a90ab9ac

DailyMed. (Updated February 2, 2023). Ketorolac tromethamine solution/drops. https://dailymed.nlm.nih.gov/dailymed/drugInfo.cfm?setid=d9a186ba-74a9-b6d4-1109-1e045ba1763e

DailyMed. (Updated April 17, 2023). Latanoprost solution/drops. https://dailymed.nlm.nih.gov/dailymed/drugInfo.cfm?setid=68aaacbe-98c5-450b-9bf4-4809d7ad2ca0

DailyMed. (Updated August 21, 2006). Maxidex – dexamethasone suspension/drops. https://dailymed.nlm.nih.gov/dailymed/drugInfo.cfm?setid=a0aa9dc9-265c-4dd6-9b03-276a47217839

DailyMed. (Updated June 27, 2023). Maxitrol-neomycin sulfate, polymyxin b sulfate and dexamethasone ointment. https://dailymed.nlm.nih.gov/dailymed/drugInfo.cfm?setid=22c6d2db-85af-4a3b-a014-80d901a86717

DailyMed. (Updated October 9, 2023). Natacyn – natamycin suspension/drops. https://dailymed.nlm.nih.gov/dailymed/drugInfo.cfm?setid=2818fcb8-5bac-41fb-864e-3b598308a428

DailyMed. (Updated August 14, 2018). Neomycin and polymyxin B sulfates and dexamethasone-neomycin sulfate, polymyxin b sulfate and dexamethasone suspension. https://dailymed.nlm.nih.gov/dailymed/drugInfo.cfm?setid=7b18587e-2d50-453c-8521-fb0c4fe51611

DailyMed. (Updated August 2, 2022). Neomycin and polymyxin b sulfates and gramicidin-neomycin sulfate, polymyxin b sulfate and gramicidin solution/drops. https://dailymed.nlm.nih.gov/dailymed/drugInfo.cfm?setid=e6f8d2f6-adff-4ae1-982c-45562f0a8e28

DailyMed. (Updated December 13, 2021). Neopolycin-neomycin and polymyxin b sulfates and bacitracin zinc ointment. https://dailymed.nlm.nih.gov/dailymed/drugInfo.cfm?setid=cf18b051-b656-4f46-8b69-a1df6f5d8d29

DailyMed. (Updated April 17, 2023). Prednisolone sodium phosphate solution/drops. https://dailymed.nlm.nih.gov/dailymed/drugInfo.cfm?setid=8a7f0f2a-3a48-4488-89cd-3e91c3b1365f

DailyMed. (Updated September 1, 2023). Proparacaine hydrochloride solution/drops. https://dailymed.nlm.nih.gov/dailymed/drugInfo.cfm?setid=b699f838-8b69-4bac-953b-ea8822ec19fc

DailyMed. (Updated December 1, 2022). Refresh lacri-lube – mineral oil, petrolatum ointment. https://dailymed.nlm.nih.gov/dailymed/drugInfo.cfm?setid=d232a44b-516d-4cdf-a4e7-c3a9a50dc7af

DailyMed (Updated April 14, 2021). Restasis – cyclosporine emulsion. https://dailymed.nlm.nih.gov/dailymed/drugInfo.cfm?setid=ce9325ab-fca1-4dae-8e53-a46ec95d3a76

DailyMed. (Updated February 21, 2023). Rhopressa – netarsudil solution/drops. https://dailymed.nlm.nih.gov/dailymed/drugInfo.cfm?setid=7d4f0e3a-5b86-4c43-982a-813b22ae7e22

DailyMed. (Updated April 6, 2020). Tetracaine hydrochloride solution/drops. https://dailymed.nlm.nih.gov/dailymed/drugInfo.cfm?setid=78404c9e-9c31-4b0a-90f4-04182e82e183

DailyMed. (Updated May 5, 2023). Timolol maleate solution. https://dailymed.nlm.nih.gov/dailymed/drugInfo.cfm?setid=ea585fe8-3356-4f08-8078-34e8ab5de37e

DailyMed. (Updated March 31, 2022). Timoptic-xe-timolol maleate solution. https://dailymed.nlm.nih.gov/dailymed/drugInfo.cfm?setid=a4d03de7-06b7-4cfc-9d1b-616969df209c

DailyMed (Updated April 29, 2020). Travoprost ophthalmic solution/drops. https://dailymed.nlm.nih.gov/dailymed/drugInfo.cfm?setid=c17aa704-1ec6-4610-a448-4964bdb1cba1

DailyMed. (Updated August 5, 2021). Trifluridine solution. https://dailymed.nlm.nih.gov/dailymed/drugInfo.cfm?setid=abc1d07f-91ee-4421-bc9b-457d0ed41f4c

Drugs.com. (2023). Ocular lubricant. https://www.drugs.com/mtm/ocular-lubricant.html

Farkouh, A., Frigo, P., & Czejka, M. (2016). Systemic side effects of eye drops: A pharmaco*kinetic perspective. Clinical Ophthalmology, 10, 2433–2441. https://doi.org/10.2147/OPTH.S118409

Fung, A. T., Tran, T., Lim, L. L., Samarawickrama, C., Arnold, J., Gillies, M., Catt, C., Mitchell, L., Symons, A., Buttery, R., Cottee, L., Tumuluri, K., & Beaumont, P. (2020). Local delivery of corticosteroids in clinical ophthalmology: A review. Clinical and Experimental Ophthalmology, 48(3), 366–401. https://doi.org/10.1111/ceo.13702

Garrity, J. (2022a). Protective features of the eyes. Merck Manual. https://www.merckmanuals.com/home/eye-disorders/biology-of-the-eyes/protective-features-of-the-eyes

Garrity, J. (2022b). Structure and function of the eyes. Merck Manual. https://www.merckmanuals.com/home/eye-disorders/biology-of-the-eyes/structure-and-function-of-the-eyes

Glaucoma Research Foundation. (2022). The importance of corneal thickness. https://glaucoma.org/the-importance-of-corneal-thickness/

Haga, C., Waller, T., Ahuja, A. S., Farford, B., Dawson, N., & Yin, M. (2022). There’s danger in the drops: Systemic effects of ophthalmic drops used to treat glaucoma. Cureus, 14(1), e20945. https://doi.org/10.7759/cureus.20945

Hoffmanova, I., & Sanchez, D. (2018). Metabolic acidosis and anaemia associated with dorzolamide in a patient with impaired renal function. British Journal of Clinical Pharmacology, 84, 796–799. https://doi.10.1111/bcp.13499

Hu, K., Patel, J., & Patel, B. C. (2022). Crigler technique for congenital nasolacrimal duct obstruction. StatPearls. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/books/NBK559267/

Institute for Safe Medication Practices. (2023).List of confused drug names. https://www.ismp.org/recommendations/confused-drug-names-list

Iskandar, K., Marchin, L., Kodjikian, L., Rocher, M., & Roques, C. (2022). Highlighting the microbial contamination of the dropper tip and cap of in-use eye drops, the associated contributory factors, and the risk of infection: A past-30-years literature review.Pharmaceutics, 2022, 14(10), 2176. https://doi.org/10.3390/pharmaceutics14102176

Johns Hopkins Medicine. (n.d.). Episcleritis. https://www.hopkinsmedicine.org/health/conditions-and-diseases/episcleritis

Khan, S. (n.d.). How do ophthalmic lubricants work? RxList. https://www.rxlist.com/how_do_ophthalmic_lubricants_work/drug-class.htm

Kopplin, L. J. (2020). When to consider systemic treatments. Retina Specialist. https://www.retina-specialist.com/article/when-to-consider-systemic-treatments

Liu, Y., Xu, H., Yan, N., Tang, Z., & Wang, Q. (2023). Research progress of ophthalmic preparations of immunosuppressants. Drug Delivery, 30(1), 2175925. https://doi.org/10.1080/10717544.2023.2175925

Mayo Clinic. (2022).Glaucoma.https://www.mayoclinic.org/diseases-conditions/glaucoma/symptoms-causes/syc-20372839

Mayo Clinic. (2023a). Dorzolamide (ophthalmic route). https://www.mayoclinic.org/drugs-supplements/dorzolamide-ophthalmic-route/side-effects/drg-20063524?p=1

Mayo Clinic. (2023b). Tetracaine (ophthalmic route). https://www.mayoclinic.org/drugs-supplements/tetracaine-ophthalmic-route/proper-use/drg-20074790?p=1

Moshirfar, M., Parker, L., Birdsong, O. C., Ronquillo, Y. C., Hofstedt, D., Shah, T. J., Gomez, A. T., & Hoopes, P. C. S. (2018). Use of rho kinase inhibitors in ophthalmology: A review of the literature. Medical Hypothesis Discovery and Innovation in Ophthalmology, 7(3), 101–111. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6205677/

Mrowicka, M., Mrowicki, J., Kucharska, E., & Majsterek, I. (2022). Lutein and zeaxanthin and their roles in age-related macular degeneration—neurodegenerative disease. Nutrients, 14, 827. https://doi.org/10.3390/nu14040827

National Eye Institute. (2020, September). Presbyopia.https://www.nei.nih.gov/learn-about-eye-health/eye-conditions-and-diseases/presbyopia

National Eye Institute. (2022, June).Refractive errors. https://www.nei.nih.gov/learn-about-eye-health/eye-conditions-and-diseases/refractive-errors

National Health Service. (2023, February).Conjunctivitis. NHS Inform. https://www.nhsinform.scot/illnesses-and-conditions/eyes/conjunctivitis

National Retina Institute. (2023). Macular degeneration. https://nationalretina.com/macular-degeneration

Rehman, I., Mahabadi, N., Motlagh, M., & Ali, T. (2022). Anatomy, head and neck, eye fovea. StatPearls. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/books/NBK482301/

Rosenbaum, J. T. (2019). The eye in spondyloarthritis. Seminars in Arthritis and Rheumatism, 49(3S), S29–S31. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.semarthrit.2019.09.014

Satar, H. A., Yaakub, A., Shukri, N., & Tajudin, L. S. (2021). Orbital cellulitis secondary to dental abscess in children. Cureus, 13(4). https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8106993/

Schonberg, S., & Stokkermans, T. (2023). Episcleritis. StatPearls. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/books/NBK534796/

Sharifi, A., Naisiri, N., Shams, M., Sharifi, M., & Sharifi, H. (2022). Adverse reactions from topical ophthalmic anesthetic abuse. Journal of Ophthalmic and Vision Research, 17(4), 470–478. https://doi.org/10.18502/jovr.v17i4.12297

Singh, P., Gupta, A., & Tripathy, K. (2023). Keratitis. StatPearls. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/books/NBK559014/

Stringer, C. M, Lopez, M. J., & Maani, C. V. (2023). Tetracaine. StatPearls. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/books/NBK535437/

Tang, X. J., Liu, Q., Pi, L. H., Chen, X. K., & Chen, L. (2021). Thygeson’s superficial punctate keratitis (TSPK): A paediatric case report and review of the literature. BMC Ophthalmology, 21(1), 64. https://doi.org/10.1186/s12886-020-01790-6

Waisberg, E., & Micieli, J. A. (2021, December). Neuro-ophthalmological optic nerve cupping: An overview. Eye Brain, 13, 255–268. https://doi.org/10.2147/EB.S272343

Chapter 39 Otic Drugs

Bode, S. (2020). Otitis media. American Academy of Pediatrics. https://doi.org/10.1542/aap.ppcqr.396207

Bowatte, G., Tham, R., Allen, K. J., Tan, D. J., Lau, M. X., Dai, X., & Lodge, C. J. (2015). Breastfeeding and childhood acute otitis media: A systematic review and meta-analysis. Acta Paediatrica, 104, 85–95. https://doi.org/10.1111/apa.13151

Bruschini, L., Berrettini, S., Christina, C., Ferranti, S., Fabiani, S., Cavezza, M., Forli, F., Santoro, A., & Tagliaferri, E. (2019). Extensive skull base osteomyelitis secondary to malignant otitis externa. Journal of International Advanced Otology, 15(3), 463–465. doi: 10.5152/iao.2019.5406. PMID: 30924772; PMCID: PMC6937192.

Cândido, E. S., Affonseca, F., Cardoso, M. H., & Franco, O. L. (2020). Echinocandins as biotechnological tools for treating Candida auris infections. Journal of Fungi (Basel), 6(3), 185. doi: 10.3390/jof6030185. PMID: 32971857; PMCID: PMC7558506.

Casale, J., Browne, T., Murray, I. V., & Gupta, G. (2023). Physiology, vestibular system. StatPearls https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/books/NBK532978/

Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. (2023a). Candida auris. https://www.cdc.gov/fungal/candida-auris/index.html

Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. (2023b). Increasing threat of spread of antimicrobial-resistant fungus in healthcare facilities. https://www.cdc.gov/media/releases/2023/p0320-cauris.html

Cleveland Clinic. (2022a). Ruptured eardrum (acutely perforated tympanic membrane). https://my.clevelandclinic.org/health/diseases/15581-ruptured-eardrum-acutely-perforated-tympanic-membrane

Cleveland Clinic. (2022b). Tinnitus. https://my.clevelandclinic.org/health/diseases/14164-tinnitus

DailyMed. (Updated November 4, 2022). Amoxicillin – amoxicillin capsule. https://dailymed.nlm.nih.gov/dailymed/drugInfo.cfm?setid=42f935ca-45ba-4b3e-8b40-9b2d4eb56281

DailyMed. (Updated December 20, 2022). Amoxicillin 500 MG – amoxicillin capsule. https://dailymed.nlm.nih.gov/dailymed/drugInfo.cfm?setid=f049551b-4708-eb13-e053-2a95a90afd1f

DailyMed. (Updated November 4, 2022). Amoxil – amoxicillin oral susp powder, for suspension. https://dailymed.nlm.nih.gov/dailymed/drugInfo.cfm?setid=ec7dd735-dc92-3d29-e053-2a95a90af549

DailyMed. (Updated March 21, 2023). Augmentin – amoxicillin and clavulanate potassium for suspension. https://dailymed.nlm.nih.gov/dailymed/drugInfo.cfm?setid=f55f61af-10f1-0e17-e053-2995a90adc43

DailyMed. (Updated December 16, 2019). Azithromycin – azithromycin monohydrate suspension. https://dailymed.nlm.nih.gov/dailymed/drugInfo.cfm?setid=071e71b8-bb53-4075-9bda-2ec48affa018

DailyMed. (Updated December 7, 2023). Careall loratadine – loratadine tablet. https://dailymed.nlm.nih.gov/dailymed/drugInfo.cfm?setid=4d952d2f-7766-4e64-8462-3fdff144546a

DailyMed. (Updated June 29, 2022). Cefdinir powder, for suspension. https://dailymed.nlm.nih.gov/dailymed/drugInfo.cfm?setid=efb5a975-75ec-46e1-ba84-f68d0b9bf36f

DailyMed. (Updated March 24, 2023). Childrens Sudafed PE nasal decongestant – phenylephrine hydrochloride solution. https://dailymed.nlm.nih.gov/dailymed/drugInfo.cfm?setid=4dfd46e4-b9f9-464d-aa47-e8fa9e526a5d

DailyMed. (Updated March 29, 2023). Chlorpheniramine maleate 4 mg – chlorpheniramine maleate tablet. https://dailymed.nlm.nih.gov/dailymed/drugInfo.cfm?setid=31dec627-f2e4-6dbe-e054-00144ff8d46c

DailyMed. (Updated June 27, 2023). Cipro HC – ciprofloxacin hydrochloride and hydrocortisone suspension/drops. https://dailymed.nlm.nih.gov/dailymed/drugInfo.cfm?setid=eff6ee40-6e52-4f61-b54d-edc612543f71

DailyMed. (Updated March 1, 2020). Ciprodex – ciprofloxacin and dexamethasone suspension/drops. https://dailymed.nlm.nih.gov/dailymed/drugInfo.cfm?setid=9b4466c2-bd57-49dd-8957-74f22f70e913

DailyMed. (Updated October 19, 2022). Clemastine fumarate syrup. https://dailymed.nlm.nih.gov/dailymed/drugInfo.cfm?setid=63a3789a-8fe9-4149-8b7d-d7e6d32aadc5

DailyMed. (Updated June 10, 2022). Clemastine fumarate tablet. https://dailymed.nlm.nih.gov/dailymed/drugInfo.cfm?setid=14aaadca-7d86-47e8-8483-6e05d456949d

DailyMed. (Updated December 5, 2023). Debrox – carbamide peroxide liquid. https://dailymed.nlm.nih.gov/dailymed/drugInfo.cfm?setid=8d6f1769-eb44-4bde-b3fa-3ff4658b7dd1

DailyMed. (Updated January 27, 2020). Diphenhydramine hydrochloride capsule. https://dailymed.nlm.nih.gov/dailymed/drugInfo.cfm?setid=ef6b86cc-bfc5-4e74-a806-33de9a68ce45

DailyMed. (Updated June 23, 2023). Neomycin and polymyxin b sulfates and hydrocortisone otic suspension. https://dailymed.nlm.nih.gov/dailymed/drugInfo.cfm?setid=35768adc-b578-4c2e-b461-22de3135a789

DailyMed. (Updated December 4, 2023). Ofloxacin otic – ofloxacin solution. https://dailymed.nlm.nih.gov/dailymed/drugInfo.cfm?setid=8db221b1-32f3-f6ca-e404-71f56a860d08

DailyMed. (Updated October 14, 2019). Phenylephrine hydrochloride tablet, coated. https://dailymed.nlm.nih.gov/dailymed/drugInfo.cfm?setid=3ced476d-81c4-42c1-af09-dfa771f94690

DailyMed. (Updated November 3, 2022). Pseudoephedrine hcl tablet, extended release. https://dailymed.nlm.nih.gov/dailymed/drugInfo.cfm?setid=1056d9da-8a3f-4b7a-878e-7f8d45d298cd

DailyMed. (Updated April 18, 2023). Pseudoephedrine HCl unit dose – pseudoephedrine HCl tablet, film coated. https://dailymed.nlm.nih.gov/dailymed/drugInfo.cfm?setid=da95c643-7122-4025-977f-42205080e56b

DailyMed. (Updated December 23, 2020). Tunsnel-dextromethorphan, guiafenesin, pseudoephedrine hcl liquid. https://dailymed.nlm.nih.gov/dailymed/drugInfo.cfm?setid=805dc611-355a-4af5-bf19-464c3290c5c6

DailyMed. (Updated May 19, 2023). Zyrtec allergy – cetirizine hydrochloride tablet, film coated. https://dailymed.nlm.nih.gov/dailymed/drugInfo.cfm?setid=b165db38-b302-4220-8627-77cb07bb078c

Danishyar, A., & Ashurst, J. (2023). Acute otitis media. StatPearls. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/books/NBK470332/

Edinoff, A. N., Swinford, C. R., Odisho, A. S., Burroughs, C. R., Stark, C. W., Raslan, W. A., Cornett, E. M., Kaye, A. M., & Kaye, A. D. (2022). Clinically relevant drug interactions with monoamine oxidase inhibitors. Health Psychology Research, 10(4), 39576. doi: 10.52965/001c.39576. PMID: 36425231; PMCID: PMC9680847.

Glowacka, K., & Wiela-Hojenska, A. (2021). Pseudoephedrine—benefits and risks.International Journal of Molecular Sciences,22(10), 5146. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms22105146

Johns Hopkins Medicine. (n.d.). Ear infection (otitis media). https://www.hopkinsmedicine.org/health/conditions-and-diseases/otitis-media

Kim, S. H., Kim, D., Lee, J. M., Lee, S. K., Kang, H. J., & Yeo, S. G. (2021). Review of pharmacotherapy for tinnitus. Healthcare (Basel), 9(6), 779. doi: 10.3390/healthcare9060779. PMID: 34205776; PMCID: PMC8235102.

Limb, C. J., Lustig, L. R., & Durand, M. L. (2023). Acute otitis media in adults. UpToDate. https://www.uptodate.com/contents/acute-otitis-media-in-adults/print

Mayo Clinic. (2023, April 1). Ofloxacin (otic route). https://www.mayoclinic.org/drugs-supplements/ofloxacin-otic-route/proper-use/drg-20065162

Medina-Blasini, Y., & Sharman, T. (2023). Otitis externa. StatPearls. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/books/NBK556055

National Institute on Deafness and Other Communication Disorders. (n.d.). Tinnitus. https://www.nidcd.nih.gov/health/tinnitus

Ramchandani, M. S., Litvack, J. R., & Marra, C. M. (2020). Otosyphilis: A review of the literature. Sexually Transmitted Diseases, 47(5), 296–300. doi: 10.1097/OLQ.0000000000001155. PMID: 32149965; PMCID: PMC8530448.

Sevy, J. O., Hohman, M. H., & Singh, A. (2023). Cerumen impaction removal. StatPearls. https://www.ncbi.nlm.gov/books/NBK448155/?report=printable

Tanna, R. J., Lin, J. W., & DeJesus, O. (2023). Sensorineural hearing loss. StatPearls. https://www.ncbi.nlm.gov/books/NBK565860/?report=printable

UCSF Health. (n.d.). Communicating with people with hearing loss. https://www.ucsfhealth.org/education/communicating-with-people-with-hearing-loss

Wang, W., Peng, L., Han, X., Mao, X., Li, S., Wen, C., Liu, Q., Ni, G., & Chen, T. (2020). New views on benign paroxysmal positional vertigo. Journal of Bio-X Research, 3, 78–82. doi: 10.1097/JBR000000000000069

Webster, K. E., Galbraith, K., Harrington-Benton, N. A., Judd, O., Kaski, D., Maarsingh, O. R., MacKeith, S., Ray, J., Van Vugt, V. A., & Burton, M. J. (2023). Systemic pharmacological interventions for Ménière's disease. Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews, 2(2), CD015171. doi: 10.1002/14651858.CD015171.pub2. PMID: 36827524; PMCID: PMC9948543.

Williamson, J. M. (2022). Side effects of Benadryl: What you need to know. Healthline. https://www.healthline.com/health/drugs/benadryl-side-effects

Chapter 40 Dermatologic Disorder Drugs

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DailyMed. (Updated January 12, 2023). Acne 10% – benzoyl peroxide gel. https://dailymed.nlm.nih.gov/dailymed/drugInfo.cfm?setid=f216b61d-ef22-61c3-e053-2a95a90ac5f9

DailyMed. (Updated February 15, 2011). Acnecycline – tetracycline hydrochloride ointment. https://dailymed.nlm.nih.gov/dailymed/drugInfo.cfm?setid=3a5e4a8e-20bb-4bf8-8a2e-8dfd7f2afb49

DailyMed. (Updated October 18, 2022). Adapalene gel. https://dailymed.nlm.nih.gov/dailymed/drugInfo.cfm?setid=aacd5ec4-e2fa-460e-aaae-a0aba5c052e5

DailyMed. (Updated June 5, 2023). Altabax – retapamulin ointment. https://dailymed.nlm.nih.gov/dailymed/drugInfo.cfm?setid=7c91eee4-242b-4af2-a39b-7842a9d95143

DailyMed. (Updated December 16, 2023). Amzeeq – minocycline aerosol, foam. https://dailymed.nlm.nih.gov/dailymed/drugInfo.cfm?setid=5fd99a72-047f-4fd9-93c1-712599fd3870

DailyMed. (Updated May 30, 2022). Azelaic acid gel. https://dailymed.nlm.nih.gov/dailymed/drugInfo.cfm?setid=66298d50-d4e2-4852-bbab-581389c488cb

DailyMed. (Updated May 18, 2023). Calananz – calamine lotion 15% lotion. https://dailymed.nlm.nih.gov/dailymed/drugInfo.cfm?setid=f4c13db8-a0f8-5713-e053-2995a90a0ae5

DailyMed. (Updated April 17, 2020). Calcipotriene ointment. https://dailymed.nlm.nih.gov/dailymed/drugInfo.cfm?setid=1bc020e0-b5ae-4cda-aa5b-87fa0452a6bc

DailyMed. (Updated January 24, 2023). Clear days ahead oil – free salicylic acid acne treatment and moisturizer – salicylic acid cream. https://dailymed.nlm.nih.gov/dailymed/drugInfo.cfm?setid=d7895387-100c-4cc4-9c25-0f3b9d0f5937

DailyMed. (Updated February 27, 2023). Clindamycin hydrochloride capsule. https://dailymed.nlm.nih.gov/dailymed/drugInfo.cfm?setid=2367340c-d297-4a3f-8253-6d27a0ed39cb&audience=professional

DailyMed. (Updated August 17, 2023). Clindamycin phosphate topical USP, 1% solution. https://dailymed.nlm.nih.gov/dailymed/drugInfo.cfm?setid=19363055-9ae7-4f0f-979d-93d0ee2c803f

DailyMed. (Updated December 8, 2023). Clobetasol propionate aerosol, foam. https://dailymed.nlm.nih.gov/dailymed/drugInfo.cfm?setid=0d5ca826-d200-42d8-b9c7-d05ecabb6ab2

DailyMed. (Updated December 20, 2023). Denorex therapeutic – coal tar and menthol shampoo. https://dailymed.nlm.nih.gov/dailymed/drugInfo.cfm?setid=603bb8c1-c492-d859-e053-2a91aa0aeb33

DailyMed. (Updated December 14, 2023). Doxycycline hyclate-doxyclycine hyclate tablet, coated. https://dailymed.nlm.nih.gov/dailymed/drugInfo.cfm?setid=f234f419-42da-4a6d-82c6-92106cd77c67

DailyMed. (Updated August 6, 2015). Elta lite tar-coal tar lotion. https://dailymed.nlm.nih.gov/dailymed/drugInfo.cfm?setid=23f310ab-3375-48d4-8b5b-3853385b3a32

DailyMed. (Updated December 6, 2023). Enbrel – etanercept solution and kit. https://dailymed.nlm.nih.gov/dailymed/drugInfo.cfm?setid=a002b40c-097d-47a5-957f-7a7b1807af7f

DailyMed. (Updated February 23, 2021). Humira – adalimumab kit and injection, solution. https://www.dailymed.nlm.nih.gov/dailymed/drugInfo.cfm?setid=608d4f0d-b19f-46d3-749a-7159aa5f933d

DailyMed. (Updated October 15, 2021). Infliximab injection, powder, lyophilized, for solution. https://dailymed.nlm.nih.gov/dailymed/drugInfo.cfm?setid=b05c174f-832c-4321-b34f-2c4ad3742269

DailyMed. (Updated November 21, 2019). Methoxsalen capsule, liquid filled. https://dailymed.nlm.nih.gov/dailymed/drugInfo.cfm?setid=a6ec8292-9189-4ebd-862a-e1725eb29eef

DailyMed. (Updated September 13, 2021). Methylpred DP tablet methylprednisolone tablet. https://dailymed.nlm.nih.gov/dailymed/drugInfo.cfm?setid=8c3f3f63-8a05-7a4a-e053-2995a90ad95a

DailyMed. (Updated February 12, 2019). Metronidazole topical gel. https://dailymed.nlm.nih.gov/dailymed/drugInfo.cfm?setid=49b16ff1-299d-4dd0-82a7-fdb9c6e7c7a0

DailyMed. (Updated September 12, 2018). Minocycline hydrochloride capsule. https://dailymed.nlm.nih.gov/dailymed/drugInfo.cfm?setid=a5fc4d50-50b2-46e0-b722-4c6b2ec47d06

DailyMed. (Updated January 17, 2018). Mupirocin ointment. https://dailymed.nlm.nih.gov/dailymed/drugInfo.cfm?setid=c36cd006-08ba-4b3e-b012-4f31c10bd001

DailyMed. (Updated December 17, 2022). 1% hydrocortisone – hydrocortisone cream. https://dailymed.nlm.nih.gov/dailymed/drugInfo.cfm?setid=5f6acc2b-7a6e-7f98-e053-2991aa0a46e7

DailyMed. (Updated January 24, 2019). Pete and pedro – coal tar solution and menthol shampoo lotion/shampoo. https://dailymed.nlm.nih.gov/dailymed/drugInfo.cfm?setid=db5f10a3-2b69-41eb-94e6-a6498c62184b

DailyMed. (Updated September 30, 2020). Pimecrolimus cream. https://dailymed.nlm.nih.gov/dailymed/drugInfo.cfm?setid=6601e43e-ce7d-446a-8568-8e7b24b86f06

DailyMed. (Updated August 24, 2022). Rayasore kit – silver sulfadiazine kit. https://dailymed.nlm.nih.gov/dailymed/drugInfo.cfm?setid=4b2b1c32-0cea-4978-bd40-e69b97fd432c

DailyMed. (Updated January 2, 2020). Sodium sulfacetamide gel. https://dailymed.nlm.nih.gov/dailymed/drugInfo.cfm?setid=c7b051aa-a1c4-4f0e-9278-2387155857b0

DailyMed. (Updated September 30, 2022). Stelara – ustekinumab injection, solution. https://dailymed.nlm.nih.gov/dailymed/drugInfo.cfm?setid=c77a9664-e3bb-4023-b400-127aa53bca2b

DailyMed. (Updated July 3, 2023). Sulfamylon – mafenide acetate cream. https://dailymed.nlm.nih.gov/dailymed/drugInfo.cfm?setid=008eaa23-8f19-4e39-85ff-540c1c834a9e

DailyMed. (Updated November 29, 2023). Tazarotene creme. https://dailymed.nlm.nih.gov/dailymed/drugInfo.cfm?setid=fa5caf83-29d5-8229-b125-d7736928f132

DailyMed. (Updated July 5, 2023). Tetracycline hydrochloride capsule. https://dailymed.nlm.nih.gov/dailymed/drugInfo.cfm?setid=3ce3e8dc-7fbd-4f8d-a65f-092e1ef21725

DailyMed. (Updated January 1, 2019). Tretinoin cream. https://dailymed.nlm.nih.gov/dailymed/drugInfo.cfm?setid=745cc3ce-60b4-4479-a055-316817567949

DailyMed. (Updated July 25, 2023). Ycanth – cantharidin solution. https://dailymed.nlm.nih.gov/dailymed/drugInfo.cfm?setid=7c9bdeaa-9822-4c69-a719-ea4a8643f59c

Frazier, W. T., Proddutur, S., & Swope, K. (2023). Common dermatologic conditions in skin of color. American Family Physician, 107(1), 26–34. https://www.aafp.org/pubs/afp/issues/2023/0100/dermatologic-conditions-skin-of-color.html

Habeshian, K., & Cohan, B. (2020). Current issues in the treatment of acne vulgaris. Pediatrics, 145(s2), S225–S230. https://doi.org/10.1542/peds.2019-2056L

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References - Pharmacology for Nurses | OpenStax (2024)

FAQs

What do nurses need to know about pharmacology? ›

Nurses use their knowledge of pharmacology to manage patient care appropriately. This includes monitoring medication, managing side effects, evaluating drug effectiveness, patient and family education regarding medication, and collaboration with the interdisciplinary team.

How to teach pharmacology to nursing students? ›

The faculty members use a number of strategies to help undergraduate nursing students learn the principles of pharmacology. These include lecture, teaching by drug class, review of pathophysiology, and case studies. Lectures. Lectures provide the foundation of what should be learned by the student.

What is pharmacology in nursing? ›

INTRODUCTION TO PHARMACOLOGY  DEFINITION:  Pharmacology is the science that deals with the study of drugs and their interaction with the living systems.  The word Pharmacology is derived from Greek – pharmacon means drug and logos means study.

What is the main goal of nursing pharmacology? ›

To help clients return to optimal health by increasing the level of skill and understanding of the administration of medications in all settings. To help each nurse observe and understand the therapeutic effects and adverse effects of these drugs on each patient.

How to pass pharmacology in nursing? ›

How to Memorize for Pharmacology
  1. Study early. Study often. ...
  2. Use different activities to summarize and supplement what you've learned. Remember those learning styles we talked about? ...
  3. Quiz yourself! ...
  4. Break down medications by class. ...
  5. Use mnemonics and acronyms. ...
  6. Make flashcards.
May 13, 2024

Is pharmacology the hardest nursing class? ›

Pharmacology. Pharmacology, or the study of medication, can seem scary because of the sheer scope of the course. “It becomes one of the hardest classes for nursing students due to the depth and amount of knowledge needed,” says Megan Lynch, RN and instructor at Pima Community College.

What is an example of pharmacology in nursing? ›

Whether administering drugs or counseling patients on self-care, safe nursing practice hinges on a broad knowledge of pharmacology. Medication classes are groups of drugs with similar therapeutic effects. Examples include antibiotics, antidepressants, and immunosuppressants.

What are the pharmacology principles for nurses? ›

When administering medications, it is important for the nurse to always follow the five rights of medication administration: the right patient, the right drug, the right dose, the right route, and the right time.

Can a nurse become a pharmacologist? ›

There are several ways to study pharmacology with a nursing degree. One option is to pursue a graduate program in nursing with a focus on pharmacology, such as a Master of Science in Nursing (MSN) or Doctor of Nursing Practice (DNP) program.

How to easily remember pharmacology? ›

Here are 10 of the best tips for learning pharmacology.
  1. Do the work! “There is no secret. ...
  2. Start with the mechanism of action. ...
  3. Flashcards, notecards, and dry erase boards. ...
  4. Understand the big picture. ...
  5. Create study aids. ...
  6. 30-second drug guide lookup. ...
  7. Touch the meds. ...
  8. Constant quizzing.

Why is pharmacology so difficult? ›

Pharmacology is the study of how drugs interact with the body and how the body responds to those drugs. Most students studying to be doctors, nurses, and pharmacists will study pharmacology at some point. Unfortunately, pharmacology is a notoriously difficult subject because there are hundreds of drugs to study.

How to study pharmacology easily? ›

  1. Know your endings. Drugs are categorized based on how they affect the body. ...
  2. Make up sayings. This was a fun and useful way to remember certain drugs while studying Pharmacology. ...
  3. Use pictures. ...
  4. Make flashcards and grab a study buddy. ...
  5. Make a list and test yourself over and over.
Aug 24, 2017

What are the principles of pharmacology for nurses? ›

When administering medications, it is important for the nurse to always follow the five rights of medication administration: the right patient, the right drug, the right dose, the right route, and the right time.

What is the nursing process in pharmacology? ›

The nursing process functions as a systematic guide to client-centered care with 5 sequential steps. These are assessment, diagnosis, planning, implementation, and evaluation. Assessment is the first step and involves critical thinking skills and data collection; subjective and objective.

How do nurses utilize pharmacology in clinical practice? ›

Nurses utilize pharmacology in clinical practice to understand the effect of drugs on patients. For example, a nurse may use knowledge of the effects of a sedative to determine whether it is safe for a specific client who is an alcoholic.

How to learn pharmacology easily? ›

10 tips for learning pharmacology
  1. Do the work! “There is no secret. ...
  2. Start with the mechanism of action. “Start with the body's responses and learn the drugs that do them. ...
  3. Flashcards, notecards, and dry erase boards. ...
  4. Understand the big picture. ...
  5. Create study aids. ...
  6. 30-second drug guide lookup. ...
  7. Touch the meds. ...
  8. Constant quizzing.

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